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2012 GCSE Food Technology Revision

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2012 GCSE Food Technology Revision
GCSE Food Technology
General Revision
The Balance of Good Health
The Balance of Good Health is a pictorial
representation of the recommended
balance of foods in the diet.
It applies to most people, including
vegetarians and from all ethnic origins,
except to children under the age of two
years.
Eight Guidelines for a Healthy Diet
The Balance of Good Health is based on the Government’s
Eight Tips for Eating Well:
1. Base your meals on starchy foods
2. Eat lots of fruit and veg
3. Eat more fish
4. Cut down on saturated fat and sugar
5. Try to eat less salt – no more than 6g a day
6. Get active and try to be a healthy weight
7. Drink plenty of water
8. Don’t skip breakfast
The Balance of Good Health is based on five food groups
which are:
Bread, other cereals and
potatoes
Fruit and vegetables
Milk and dairy
foods
Meat, fish and
alternatives
Foods containing fat
Foods containing sugar
Fruit and Vegetables
Bread, other cereals and
potatoes
•Aim for at least 5 portions a day.
•Eat plenty of foods rich in starch and
fibre.
•Fresh, dried, frozen, canned and
juiced - they all count
•Fill-up on bread, potatoes, rice, pasta
and yams.
•Main nutrients: vitamin A, vitamin
C, folates and fibre
•Main nutrients: carbohydrate
(starch), some calcium and iron,
vitamin B, and fibre
.
Meat, fish and alternatives
Milk and dairy foods
•Help the body to grow and stay
healthy.
•Help bones and teeth to grow strong
and stay healthy.
•Eat a range of meat, fish eggs, nuts,
seeds, tofu, beans, and pulses.
•Try lower-fat options.
•Main nutrients: iron, protein, B vitamins
(B12), zinc, magnesium
Foods
containing
fat /sugar
•Main nutrients: calcium, protein,
vitamin B12, vitamins A & D
•Don’t eat too many foods that
contain a lot of fat.
•Don’t have sugary foods and drinks
too often.
What are Nutrients?
Nutrients are the building blocks that make up food and have specific and important
roles to play in the body. Some nutrients provide energy while others are essential
for growth and maintenance of the body.
Nutrient
Role in the body
Food Example
Carbohydrate
The main source of energy for
the body
Bread, rice, pasta,
potatoes
Protein
Provides the body with growth
and repair.
Fat
Provides the body with
insulation and a small amount
protects vital organs.
Provides essential fatty acids for
the body.
Meat, poultry,
beans, eggs, lentils,
tofu, fish
Butter, oil, cheese,
cream, nuts, oily
fish, crisps
Vitamin
Role in the body
Food examples
A
Helps to keep the eyes healthy and strengthen the immune
system.
Dark green leafy
vegetables, carrots, liver
B
Helps to release the energy from the food we eat.
Bread, milk, cereals, fish,
meat
C
Help with skin healing and healthy skin. Help with the
absorption of Iron.
Fresh fruit, broccoli,
tomatoes
D
Important for absorbing calcium and help with healthy bone
structure
Oily fish, eggs, butter,
Sunshine
Vitamins
Help to keep our immune system up and help our body to stay healthy – they important for body
maintenance.
Mineral
Role in the body
Food Examples
Calcium
Important for strong teeth and bones. It also helps with blood
clotting.
Milk, yoghurt, soya, dark
green leafy vegetables
Needed for red blood cells which help to transport oxygen
around the body.
Nuts, whole grains, dark
green leafy vegetables,
meat, liver
Iron
Minerals
Help to keep our immune system up and help our body to stay healthy.
Specific dietary groups
You will need to revise specific dietary groups such as:
• Diabetics
• Coeliacs (require gluten free diet)
• Low fat / Low salt – to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) / stroke /
high blood pressure / obesity
• Vegetarian - eat only dairy animal products (milk, eggs, cream etc.)
• Vegan – no animal products whatsoever
• Nut Allergy
• Lactose Intolerant (unable to have cow’s milk / milk products)
• Calorie controlled
• Specific Religions e.g. Hindus eat no beef, Muslims eat no pork, Jews eat no pork
or shellfish
Standard Components
Standard components are pre-prepared ingredients used during the
manufacture of food products.
They are made at a different time, and often at a different place by another
company.
Common examples are:
•
Pre-shaped / made pastry (e.g. puff pastry, tart cases)
•
Readymade pasta
•
Ready mixes of ingredients (e.g. Cheese sauce, pasta sauce, pastry mixes, curry paste)
•
Breadcrumbs – for breaded mushrooms / prawns/ chicken goujons
•
Pre-prepared fruit & vegetables (for salads – e.g. Prawn coleslaw, pasta prawn salad, quiche fillings,
sandwiches, readymade dips)
•
Grated Cheese
•
Batter mixes (e.g. For butterflied prawns, Yorkshire puddings)
•
Readymade sponge flan cases / icings/ cake decorations e.g. Chocolate curls
Using standard components helps ensure a consistent final product because they
are of a standard quality. For example:
• standard weight, size and shape (e.g. Tart case, pizza finger, bread roll)
• Accurate in ratio (proportions) of ingredients
Standard components are often used to save time and money. They also help quality control by
guaranteeing a consistent and reliable quality. A specialist supplier can often make them
cheaply because they can be manufactured in very large numbers on a dedicated production line.
Advantages & Disadvantages of Standard Components
Advantages
Disadvantages
Manufacturers may use
standard components:
There are some disadvantages
to using standard components:
To save time
Can be more expensive
Because they do not have the
necessary specific machinery or
skilled workers
The manufacturer is relying on
another company that could let
them down
So that the quality is guaranteed
Time must be allowed for ordering
and supply
Because complex production lines
take up a lot of space and are
expensive to set up.
Components are usually bought in
bulk and have to be stored in the
right conditions
So that a wider range of products
can be produced
Hazards in food preparation
What are Hazards?
•
Hazards are anything that can cause harm to the consumer. They can occur at any stage in the food production
chain from the field to factory to shop to table.
Biological:
•
e.g. salmonella in raw chicken , seafood or eggs, Campylobacter (gastroenteritis) found in seafood, meat,
poultry & milk; Listeria in soft cheeses and pates, E-coli in cooked meats, Clostridium botulium found in
canned fish, meat & vegetables.
Chemical:
•
e.g. cleaning chemicals, agricultural chemical, paint, oil
Physical: e.g.
•
Glass from bottles, jars, light fixtures
•
Metal from machinery, equipment, packaging, jewellery
•
Wood from pallets, boxes
•
Insects from plants, open windows
•
Personal items e.g. jewellery, hair, fingernails, cigarettes
•
Packaging faults e.g. bags not sealed
What is ‘Food contamination’? Food contamination means:
• That food has micro-organisms/bacteria in it
• Food may cause food poisoning / unsafe food
• Food becomes harmful because of physical/chemical/biological
contaminants
• You can also refer to ‘high risk foods’ and ‘cross contamination’.
You will need to explain how food contamination can be prevented . Include checks on:
Staff (clean uniform / healthy / no visible cuts / boils etc.), sanitising & cleaning equipment / surfaces; checking
equipment is safe and in good condition, use of colour coded chopping boards, checking storage temperatures,
rotation of stock (FIFO), using reputable suppliers & quality ingredients etc.
The Danger Zone!
• Important temperature
zones:
• 0 – 4oC – fridge temp.
• 5oC – 63oC – Danger Zone
• 72oC – Temp at which food
must reach for at least 2
minutes to kill bacteria.
• -18oC Freezer temp (+ or –
3oC)
Electrical Kitchen Equipment
Health and safety rules to be followed by food workers using electrical
equipment.
Hand
• •Keep away from water
Blender
• •Follow manufacturers instructions
• •Check condition of flexes
• •Check wiring on plug
• •Do not use with wet hands
• •Do not leave flexes across water supplies
Electric Whisk
• •Check equipment has passed safety checks e.g. PAT tests
• •Accept equipment specific responses, e.g. blender, mixers
• •Hold securely / securely based during use.
• •Keep fingers / clothing/ hair away from any moving parts
• •Have training in correct use of equipment
• •Equipment should be clean before/after use
• •Personal safety precautions/ Wear clean, protective clothing
• •Concentration during use/ do not leave unsupervised.
Tabletop Food Mixer
Sensory Testing
Food manufacturers use sensory testing when they are creating or
improving food products. Testing is always carried out in controlled
conditions. This refers to having all conditions the same, so it is unbiased and
you get the results of a fair test.
Controlled Conditions:
• Same size samples
• Identical dishes
• Identical quantities of food
• Coded samples
• Same light conditions
• Noise free area
• Smell free area
• Individual booths for privacy
• Instructions given to taste tester
• Similar charts used to record outcomes
4-6 samples MAXIMUM
Water / lime or lemon squash to drink between samples
Sensory Testing – Types of tests
Rating Test
Used to assess a specific flavour or texture but require trained
testers and the use of a particular scale. Products are given a rating
– similar to when you visit the cinema
Example: Tomato soup – seven point scale
1.
Dislike Extremely
2.
Dislike a lot
3.
Dislike a little
4.
Neither like of dislike
5.
Like a little
6.
Like a lot
7.
Like extremely
Rating tests can also be used for one particular attribute e.g.
saltiness, sourness
Ranking Test
•These test the degree of intensity of a specific sensory
property, such as sweetness.
•Food samples are ranked in order to show which one the
taste tester preferred
•Results recorded in a table
• Testers are asked to rank the products in order (1st, 2nd,
3rd, 4th)
Example:
A set of coded samples e.g crisp flavours is presented to
the tester and they have to rank the samples in order of
either a specific attribute e.g saltiness or which products
they like the most
Profiling Test
•This is also called sensory profiling. This is used to obtain detailed,
descriptive evaluation of different food items.
•A sensory profile of each product is developed which may look at
the texture, flavour and aroma, appearance and sound.
•Each tester rates a characteristic from 1-5 (1 being lowest and 5
being the highest)
•Results from each tester are
averaged and this score it put
onto the star to give a visual profile.
Difference Test
•Tests used to find out if there is a clear difference between
products
•They could be used to test:
low fat Vs original full fat
traditional brand Vs an economy supermarket version
Coke Vs pepsi
•Two test versions: Paired comparison, Triangle test
Paired Comparison tests – coded samples are given to a tester to
compare a similar characteristic e.g sweetness.
Triangle test – Three samples are given to the tester two of which
are the same and the tester has to identify the odd one out. This is
useful if a small change has been made to the product. E.g reducing
the sugar content.
Additives are a substance added to food to improve its
quality
What do Additives do?
•
•
•
•
Improve the sensory qualities of a product (taste, texture, appearance, aroma)
Extend the shelf-life of a product
Add nutritional value – fortified breakfast cereal
Increase the time food is safe to eat – preservatives, salting, pickling
Additives can be….
Natural
found naturally, such as extracts from beetroot juice (E162), used as a
colouring agent.
Man Made
Versions
Synthetic identical copies of substances found naturally, such as benzoic
acid (E210), used as a preservative.
Artificial
Produced synthetically and not found naturally, such as nisin (E234), used
as a preservative in some dairy products.
Types of Additive
Additive type
Preservatives
Reason for inclusion
To make products last longer by protecting
against the growth of micro-organisms
Examples
Salt, sugar, vinegar, sulphur dioxide.
Food Examples: Dried Fruit, meat, bacon
Colours
Flavours and Flavour
enhancers
To improve or change the appearance.
To replace colour lost through processing
methods
To improve or change the flavour.
To replace flavours lost through processing
methods.
Beetroot red (E162)
Caramel (E150)
Tartrazine (E101)
Food Examples:
Fizzy drinks, mushy peas, tinned custard
Vanilla, sugar, saccharine, aspartame,
monosodium glutamate.
Food Examples: Fizzy drink, ice cream
Antioxidants
To make foods last longer. To stop fatty foods
from going rancid.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
Vitamin E (tocopherol)
Types of Additive
Additive type
Reason for inclusion
Examples
Emulsifiers and
stabilisers
To improve the texture.
To stop foods separating
Lecithin, xanthan gum.
Thickening agents
Used to form a gel to thicken sauces
Modified starch.
Nutrients
Enrich the nutritional value of a food
product.
Vitamins and minerals added
to bread/cereal
Gelling agents
Used to make food set, e.g. jams and
jellies.
Pectin.
Advantages and disadvantages of food additives:
Advantages 
• Natural additives – no ‘chemical’ content
• Enable food to be preserved
• Improved colour / flavour
• Improve sensory attributes of food
• Use out of season
• Longer shelf life
• Prevent separation of e.g. dressings
• Allow colour of product to be constant,
e.g. jam
• Prevents oxidation of fats in baked
products
Disadvantages 
• Synthetic additives are created in a
laboratory
• Safety of some additives a concern
• Make some foods look unnatural and
artificial
• Additives need approval from the EU, e.g.
some are removed /
Withdrawn
• Unknown health risks of some additives
• Risk of hyper activity in children
May give examples e.g. colourings in
squash
• Other health problems linked to the use
of additives:
Increased asthma
Eczema
Food intolerances
Food
Labelling
Compulsory:
By law, all food manufacturers
(people who make food products)
must have the following on their
food labels:
• Name of product
• Description of product
• Manufacturer’s name & address
• Weight or volume
• Storage instructions
• Cooking or preparation
instructions (e.g. heating up ready
meals)
• List of ingredients (heaviest first)
• ‘Best before’ / ‘Use by’ date
Optional Food Labelling:
Food Manufacturers will often add one or more
from the list below, although these are not
required by law:
• Illustration (picture / photo)
• Bar code or smart code – they identify the
price and are used by shops and
manufacturers for stock control.
• Special claim (e.g. ‘low fat’) – if a special
claim is given it must have nutritional
information provided – compulsory!
• Symbol for average quantity (e)
• Nutritional information of the product. If the
special claim is about a nutrient, this
information MUST be included.
• Customer guarantee
• Price – although lots don’t as they have smart
codes.
• Allergy advice
• Recycling logos and anti-litter symbols to
encourage consumers to recycle.
• Serving suggestions e.g. serve with custard or
cream.
The purpose of packaging
Protection - Packaging protects foods from:
•
•
•
Physical damage during transportation and storage
The effects of temperature changes, insect or rodent attacks, mould growth etc.
Packaging guarantees food safety and hygiene.
Preventing Tampering – Packaging helps stop the tampering of goods. It’s almost
impossible to make packaging tamperproof, but it can be designed so that it’s
obvious if the package has been opened.
Portability - Packaging contains the contents:
•
•
so that they can be transported, stored and displayed easily.
Packaging can make awkwardly shaped products easy to handle.
Preserving
•
Packaging can be part of the preservation process such as tin cans and modified
atmosphere packaging (MAP)
Product recognition – Identify labels and advertising
•
•
•
Packaging describes and identifies the contents.
Good packaging design gives a brand image and links other products in the range.
Orange, yellow and blue are popular packaging colours.
Sustainability & Environmental Issues
Packaging Issues:
Seasonality:
• Excess use leads to poor environmental control /
deforestation /world’s natural resources (e.g. oils)
running out
• Use of recyclable packaging/biodegradable/concern
over length of time to decompose
• Ethical/ environmental /moral concerns/issues.
• no use of packaging if preferable but need to package
certain foods and for cooking
• Land fill
• Storage problems for foods and left over packaging
• Queries over information provided on packages e.g.
Nutritional labelling
• Chemicals used in some food packaging
• Impact/harm of wildlife
• New technologies – vacuum packaging
nanotechnology/ coatings, MAP, aseptic (e.g. TetraPak)
– benefits and advantages.
By purchasing local foods in-season, you eliminate the environmental
damage caused by shipping foods thousands of miles, your food pound
goes directly to the farmer, and your family will be able to enjoy the
health benefits of eating fresh, unprocessed fruits and vegetables.
Foods that are in season are better in terms of nutritive value and are
cheaper. Buying seasonal produce also provides an exciting opportunity
to try new foods and to experiment with seasonal recipes. It simply
tastes better too!
See http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/content/local/seasonal/table/
Food Miles:
Is the distance food travels from where its produced to where it’s sold
Facts and figures
•UK food exports in 1994 - 12 million tonnes. UK food imports in 1994 20 million tonnes.
•Each tonne of food travelled an average of 123 km in 1998 (the average
figure was 82 km in 1978)
•Food in the UK now travels 50% further than it did 15 years ago.
Fair Trade:
Fair trade foods ensure that the workers or
Farmers who produce the foods get a fair price for their
produce and have a reasonable standard of living. Fair
trade is about guaranteed fair prices for the farmers,
farmer workers and their families, better working
conditions and local sustainability. Companies who buy
the farmers’ products must pay the market price. Fair
trade foods include coffee, tea, chocolate, icing sugar,
caster sugar and bananas.
•Five large retail chains account for 80% of food sold in the UK.
•Transportation of food was responsible for 33% of the increase in road
freight over the last 15 years.
•In the UK, road transport is the only source of a greenhouse gas (carbon
dioxide) that is still increasing.
What can we do about this?
Buy locally sourced ingredients and eat in season. Try to avoid buying
ingredients that have travelled long distances.
Properties and functions of ingredients
•
Primary ingredients:
Raw foods that have received little or
no processing – i.e. fresh fruit or
vegetables
•
Secondary ingredients:
Foods that have received more
complex processing which makes them
into composites or products – i.e. a
pasta sauce, pastry case.
•
Components :
Individual ingredients which make up a
product – i.e. flour, fat and water =
pastry.
•
Composites:
Foods that have had some processing
but are still not the final product – i.e.
shortcrust pastry that still need to be
turned into a pie.
Properties and functions of ingredients
Food properties
•
Different foods have different working properties when
treated in certain ways or combined with other foods. The
table lists the working properties you need to know about.
•
Aerating makes a mixture lighter. Fats, eggs and sugar are
used for aerating.
•
Binding helps to stick ingredients together. Fats, eggs,
cereals and flour are used for binding, eg egg is used to
bind together a biscuit mixture.
•
Browning adds a layer of colour to the mixture. Fats, eggs,
cereals, sugar, milk, flour and oil are used for browning, eg
when heated, egg glaze or sugar turns brown adding to the
appearance of the food.
•
Emulsifying uses eggs to help mix two liquids that would
normally stay separate, such as water and oil.
•
Flavouring helps to make something taste better, by
adding fats, eggs, pulses, fruit, sugar, milk or oil.
•
Moistening helps to remove the dryness from foods. Fats,
eggs, fruit, sugar, milk or oil are used for moistening.
•
Preserving helps food to last longer, through freezing,
canning, jam-making pickling etc. Foodstuffs used in
preserving are fats, sugar and oil.
•
Setting uses eggs to make foods firm.
•
Shortening is the use of oils and fats such as butter and
lard, to reduce the development of gluten in pastry, which
makes the pastry dough less stretchy. The fat coats the
flour and prevents too much water from being absorbed
during the mixing and produces a crumbly, short-textured,
melt-in-the-mouth effect.
•
Stabilising helps food to keep its structure. Eggs and flour
are used for stabilising.
•
Sweetening improves the flavour of certain foods by
adding sugar or fruit, eg sugar will help to soften the
sharp taste of grapefruit.
•
Thickening is the use of eggs, pulses, cereals and fruit to
thicken liquids such as milk. (Usually heat is applied, as in
the making of egg custard).
•
Volumising is the use of eggs to increase the volume or
amount of space occupied by a substance. For example egg
whites will trap air when whisked/beaten and will produce a
mass of bubbles called a 'foam' - a process used in the
making of meringues.
As you can see from the chart, most of these working
properties can be found in many different foods:
Properties and functions of ingredients
STARCH
These are food products obtained from
cereals, root vegetables and fruit. They
can be used to thicken liquids. When
heated the starch grains bust and absorb
the liquid causing gelatinisation.
Smart Starches
These are starches that have been
changed by the manufacturers to reach
differently in different situations and
are called MODIFIED STARCHES
1.
Pregelatinised – allows them to thicken
instantly – instant custard, pot noodles
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Starch particles do not dissolve in liquid
instead they form a suspension
Stirring or agitating the liquid keeps the
particles suspended.
If the suspension is not stirred the particles
form to the bottom forming lumps
When the liquid reaches 60°C the starch grains
begin to absorb the liquid
At 80°C the particles break open and release
starch making the mixture thick and viscose,
this is called gelatinisation.
Gelatinisation is complete when the liquid
reaches 100°C. The thickened liquid now forms
a gel. On cooling the gel solidifies.
The reheating quality of starch can be poor as
they often separate leaving a thin liquid behind.
(SINERESIS)
No sineresis – allows starch product to
be reheated easily – used in ready meals
with sauces e.g. lasagne
Thickening – in low calorie products
where less starch is used or more acid
required – salad dressings
Fat replacement – currently under
development is a starch that could
replace some of the fat in low fat dishes
like biscuits and cakes.
Properties and functions of ingredients
Fats and oils
Animal – pigs, cows, sheep
Vegetable – wheat, barley, oats, seeds, olives,
beans, some fruit (avocado)
Fish – trout, mackerel, salmon, herring
Types
Fat is solid at room temperature –
soft margarine, butter, dripping, block
margarine, low fat spread, suet.
Oil is liquid at room temperature – cream,
sesame seed oil, fish oils, olive oil,
vegetable oil, sunflower oil, rape-seed oil.
Saturated Fats –
mainly from animal sources, can increase
blood cholesterol that leads to heart
disease.
Polyunsaturated –
mainly from plant sources
Low fat products
Too much can cause obesity, too much
saturated can result in heart disease.
Using low fat products can help reduce
these risks. Look for low fat or fat
reduced on the packaging.
Function of fats:
What it does
Example …..
Adds flavour
Fat in biscuits, cakes, bread.
Melted on vegetables, Olive
oil drizzled on pasta
Makes food moist
Butter, margarine on bread
and scones
Seals
Butter and lard help to
preserve pâtés by sealing
them
Shortens/changes
texture
Shortbread, cakes and
pastries have a crumbly
texture because the flour
particles are coated in fat
Aerates
In cake mixtures, butter and
margarine help to trap air
when creamed with sugar
Extends the shelf
life
The addition of fat to baked
products means that they
stay moist for longer.
Properties and functions of ingredients
Sugar
Eggs
Functions of sugar
Cakes, biscuits –
to add sweetness and colour, prevent drying out,
give texture and volume.
Jam –
to act as a preservative, help set the fruit.
Bread –
to speed up fermentation of the yeast
Ice cream –
to lower freezing point, add texture and volume
Creamed mixtures (cakes, biscuits) –
to lighten and help fat trap air.
Plain looking foods –
to decorate
Functions of Eggs
Aeration
Whisking stretches the protein and adds air
bubbles. The air bubbles form a foam which
partially coagulates. Used in sponge cakes,
meringues and mousses
Emulsification
When oil and another liquid are forced together
they emulsify. The addition of egg yolk (lecithin)
stabalises the emulsification. – mayonnaise.
Coagulation
Eggs set and eventually go solid when heated.
The egg white sets at 60°C, the yolk at 70°C.
Used to set mixture like quiche, custard and
lemon curd.
Other uses
Garnish
Chopped or sliced to decorate savoury products.
Glaze
Any part of the egg can be used to brush over a
baked product to make it shine, particularly
pastry and bread.
Sugar cane and sugar beet are processed to
produce different types of sugar -molasses,
granulated, caster, dark brown, soft brown,
muscavado, icing, demerara, cubes.
Artificial sweeteners
These are lower in calories but are mainly used
to sweeten as they often fail to duplicate other
functions.
Hydrogenated sweeteners – Sorbitol, Mannitol,
Xylitol, Hydrogenated Glucose Syrup.
Non-nutritive/intensive sweeteners – Saccharine,
Aspartame, Acesulfame, Thaumarin
Mostly from chickens but all bird eggs can be eaten.
Properties and functions of ingredients
Dairy products
Milk
All mammals produce milk but the main ones we drink
are cows. Increasing amounts of goats milk are now
being drunk by those with an intolerance to cows milk.
Primary processing:
this takes the milk from the animal and treats it to
make it safe to drink and use.
Pasteurised- this make the milk safe to use as it destroys
and harmful bacteria. Milk is heated to 72°C for 15
seconds then cooled rapidly to 10°C or below before
being packaged.
Homogenised –after pasteurisation the milk is forced
through tiny holes to mix in the cream.
Sterilized – after pasteurisation and homogenisation the
milk is bottled, sealed and heated to 110°C for 30
mins. This alters the taste.
Evaporated – water is evaporated off to make it more
concentrated. It is then homogenised and packed into
cans before heating to 120°C for 10 mins. The taste
is altered and the milk is slightly thicker.
Dried – drying removes the water, this allows it to keep
for several months. The milk is sprayed into a hot
chamber, the liquid evaporated leaving behind a fine
powder.
Skimmed – this has all the cream removed so is low in fat.
Semi-skimmed – this has some of the fat removed
UHT (Ultra Heat Treated) – The milk is heated to 140°C
for 1 second before being cooled quickly then
packaged. This milk will keep for a longer time.
Channel Island – milk is from Jersey and Guernsey cows
and is 5% higher in fat.
Condensed Milk –water is evaporated from the milk then
sugar is added to preserve it and make it thicker.
Nutritional Content
Sugar – lactose, Vitamin B, Calcium, Fat, Phosphorus,
Protein, Vitamin A.
The amount of fat depends on the type of milk.
Functions of milk
To improve the nutritional value of a product – add protein,
fat.
To add flavour.
Secondary Processing
Butter – made by churning the cream.
Function to improve flavour and moisture of a
product.
Cream – extracted from the milk. The fat content depends
on the type of cream. Double, single, whipping,
clotted, crème fraîche, sour, sterilised.
Function to add flavour and richness.
Cheese – This is a solid form of milk 33% each of fat,
protein and water. The cheese depends on the kind of
milk and bacteria used and the method of production.
Function to add flavour, moisture and texture.
Yogurt – Made by adding a special bacteria to the milk
which make it sourer and thickens the milk. Flavour
and sugar can then be added.
Function – add flavour and texture but can reduce fat
content.
Effects of heating can change the way milk products
react – cheese melts and separated into protein and
fat so should be heated slowly.
- milk hold air as it boils, this is good when making the
frothy topping for coffee – cappuccino.
Manufacturing Methods - There are different types of manufacturing
system, each one suitable for different scales of production:
One-off production is when a single product is
Batch production involves the making of a set
made to the individual needs of a customer, for
number of identical products (large or small).
example a designer wedding cake. This is classed as a
Typically batch production is used in a bakery, where a
luxury food item.
certain number of several different types of bun, loaf,
Eg: wedding cake
cake etc, will be made
every morning.
Eg: bakery making bread
Mass production is used to make foods on a
Continuous-flow production is a method of high-
large scale, either wholly or partially using
volume production, used in foods such as milk and packet
machines. The production line involves individual
pizzas. Production lines run 24 hours a day. Where
tasks that will be carried out repetitively. This is
production line machines are controlled by computers
time-efficient and helps
this is called Computer-Aided Manufacture (CAM).
to keep the costing of the
product low.
Example: beer, crisps, pies
Eg: bottled water, beans
Quality control
Safety in the food industry
Safety is vitally important in the food industry, for obvious reasons. As in any
other type of production, the most important part of safety-consciousness is
identifying and monitoring potential hazards (this is called hazard analysis)
and taking steps to avoid them. There are three main types of hazard in food
production:
•
A biological hazard is where foods become dangerously infected by
bacteria. This might lead to food poisoning, such as salmonella.
•
A physical hazard occurs where foreign bodies, such as nuts and screws
from factory machinery, personal jewellery and fingernails, fall into the
food.
•
A chemical hazard is where potentially dangerous fluids or pesticides have
found their way into food.
Control Checks
A control check is a
check
that you would do
throughout
the making of a dish to
ensure that it was
produced hygienically
and safely
How many control checks can you think of?
Put your
apron on
Visually
Checking
your product
Check the
best before and
sell by date
Tie your
hair back,
Remove jewellery
and nail varnish
Remove pests, pets
and rodents
Store food in
the freezer -18C
Clean Equipment
Store food in
the fridge
0-5C
Disinfect surfaces
Temperature Checks
using a food probe
Wash your hands
Food on display for no longer
than 90 minutes
Make sure food is
Reheated to 72C
Time Checking
Check freshness
of foods
Production methods
Production systems
In the food business, in common with other industries, the production
process can be viewed as a system with the following elements:
•
The inputs include everything that goes into the system, most obviously
the ingredients.
•
The processes include weighing, mixing, shaping and forming of
mixtures, cooking, cooling and packaging, with checks throughout the
process. Some of these processes and the production line may be
controlled by computers. This is called Computer-Aided Manufacturing
(CAM) and it helps to maintain consistency.
•
The output is the end-product complete with packaging, for example a
packet of biscuits.
•
The feedback loop can happen at a variety of stages of production line,
when the control checks flag up the need for alteration and
improvement in the inputs or processes.
Control systems
Systems are the different processes that
work together to enable a task to be
completed.
Systems are used to:
• Make the processes more efficient
• Make the task easier
• Make the task and process easier to check
Input
This is the information,
materials, foods,
equipment, energy and
other resources you need
to carry out a task
process
This is what’s done with all
the inputs during the
completion of the task and
could include measuring,
mixing, heating, cooling
etc.
A system is divided
into three parts
IMPUT, PROCESS,
OUTPUT
output
This is the result of the
processes – the final result
of finished product.
Control systems - continued
A production system also allows for FEEDBACK – this is important as it ensures good
quality finished products.
EXAMPLE: production feedback for a quiche
Input
process
OK
Roll out
pastry
Line flan
case
Add
filling
output
Add egg
and milk
mixture
OK
Add
cheese
Holes in
pastry
Back to rolling
out
Cook flan
Cheese
uneven
Back for more
cheese
This monitoring may be done by computer which would return the product to the
previous stage CAM
Quality Control
Ways to check quality:
Visual Check:
Raw ingredients and finished
products checked this way by
looking carefully at outcome
Micro-biological check:
Samples tested in a laboratory for
levels of bacteria
Weight Check:
Products are weighed and tested
at the packaging stage
(usually done by computer CAD)
Chemical Check:
Samples are tested in a lab to
make sure they are free from
contamination
pH check:
May be tested for acidity or
alkalinity
Temperature check:
Samples are regularly checked by
probe to ensure accurate
temperatures for manufacture
and storage.
Organoleptic check:
Final products tested for flavour,
texture and aroma
Metal check:
Metal detectors are used to
ensure the finished product has
no metallic contamination
Quality Control in Mass Production
Mass produced products need to be of identical quality to ensure customers will
continue to buy them. The manufacturer can follow the following pointers:
1. To ensure ACCURATE WEIGHT use electronic scales to weigh the ingredients and the
final product to ensure it weighs within the levels of tolerance set.
2. To ensure ACCURATE SIZE or SHAPE manufacturers use standard moulds, templates
and cutting devises
3. The same flavour and texture will be produced every time by making sure the
identical STANDARD FOOD COMPONENTS and ACCURATELY MEASURED INGREDIENTS.
Preparation, mixing and cooking times are also MEASURED ACCURATELY.
4. The SAME COLOUR is produced by using fixed ingredients, cooking times and
temperatures. COLOUR can also be checked against a standard colour using CAM
machines.
5. The PACKAGING of the product is also controlled
6. The NAME and CONTACT DETAILS for the manufacturer should appear on the
PACKAGE in case the product is SUBSTANDARD
Key words/Terms
Additives - Substances added to food in small amounts to perform a function such as to
preserve, colour or flavour a product.
Aesthetics - The appreciation of good taste or good design. The product appeals to your
senses. “It looks appealing, I want to eat it!”
Ambient temperature - Normal room temperature. 20 - 25°C
Antibacterial - Working against or prohibiting the growth of bacteria.
Bacteria - Small microscopic organisms found all about us. They multiply by splitting in two
every 20 mins. (Binary fission)
Batch production - Producing a small quantity of identical products. For GCSE assume 50.
Blast chill - To cool food quickly by blasting it with cold air.
Blast freezing - Quickly freezing that makes small ice crystals which do less damage to the
food than slow freezing.
Brand - A particular make of product usually with a well known name e.g. Heinz baked beans.
C.A.D. - Computer-aided design e.g. programs used for designing packaging.
C.A.M.- Computer-aided manufacture. e.g. using a computer to help control baking
temperatures.
Component - A ready prepared part of something. e.g. a ready made pizza base.
Consumer - A person who buys or uses products and services.
Continuous-flow production - Continuous processing 24/7. Expensive to set up, cheap to
run. Fewer people employed; usually computer controlled.
Cook-chill - Food that has been cooked, fast chilled and then stored at low temperatures.
Cook-freeze - Food that has been cooked, fast frozen and then stored below freezing
point.
Cross contamination - The transfer of harmful bacteria from one area to another.
Danger zone - The temperature range in which bacteria thrive (4 - 60°c).
Diet - The food and drink that we eat.
Dietary Reference Values DRV’s - DRV’s show the amount of food energy or other
nutrients needed by people of different ages.
Due diligence - In food preparation this means that the company has set up
systems to help avoid contamination of food products.
E numbers - The number given to an additive to show that it has been approved by
the EU.
Environmental Health Officer EHO - The enforcement officer at local government
level who covers public health such as the hygiene of food premises and food safety.
Flow diagram - Step by step chart or plan of a system or production process.
H.A.C.C.P. - Hazard analysis and critical control point.
Hazard - Anything that can cause harm to the consumer.
High risk area - The section in the food preparation area where food is most likely to be
contaminated by bacteria.
High risk foods - Those most likely to encourage bacterial growth. e.g. cooked meat,
cooked poultry, fish, dairy foods.
Image/Mood board - A display of pictures and drawings to give ideas about a target
group or a range of products.
Just in time - Some factories & fast food outlets order stock just in time to
manufacture the product. They do not have room to store it days/weeks in advance.
Key words / Design Criteria - Important words that may relate to the design brief.
Logo - The symbol of a company used on products.
Low risk area - Section in the food preparation area where food is less likely to be
contaminated by bacteria.
M.A.P. - Modified atmosphere packaging. Removing the air and flushing the packet with
a gas.
Marketable product - One that appeals to people and will sell when it reaches the shops;
to succeed, all products must be marketable.
Modelling - To experiment with an idea without actually cooking it. You can model the nutritional value
of a food product by using FOODPC6.
One-off production - One product is made, usually to order. It is unique. It can be expensive.
Organoleptic Testing - A posh term for sensory analysis. Using your sensory organs to test a product.
In simple language, taste testing!
Portion - A portion for one is the amount of food that satisfies the need for one person.
Product specification - The exact details needed to make the product.
Prototype - A sample product to be used for trialling and market research.
Quality assurance - A system that is set up before a product is made and which lays down procedures
for making a safe, quality product.
Quality control - The steps in the process of making a product to make sure that it meets the
standards; faulty products are removed.
Repetitive-flow production - Assembly line production of a product, often using a conveyor belt. Used
for producing large numbers.
Standard Component - A component pre-prepared that can be used when producing a new product. Eg.
a standard component may be shop bought mayonnaise, tomato sauces for pasta, pizza bases
Sensory descriptors - Words that describe taste, smell, texture and flavour.
Shelf life - How long a food product can be kept, making sure it is safe to eat and good quality.
Target Market / group - The person or group of people that the product is aimed at. e.g. teenagers,
families.
Tolerance level - The amount and flexibility allowed when making a product – in terms of weight,
colour, size – so that it meets quality standards.
Traceability - Tracing a fault back to the point at which it occurred in order to remedy the fault and
avoid it happening again.
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