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法规、政策和执法概况介绍 - 中加合作农民工职业卫生安全项目

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法规、政策和执法概况介绍 - 中加合作农民工职业卫生安全项目
欢迎中国代表团
魁北克省职业卫生与安全法律、法规、政策
和执法概况介绍
Yves Brissette, Ph.D.
Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail
October 2010
1
魁北克省职业卫生与安全规划
 在职业卫生与安全领域,社会保险涉及的
工人和雇主有300万人
 职业卫生与安全法令规定了工人和雇主有
对其工作场所卫生与安全负责的职责
2
魁北克省职业卫生与安全规划
目标:

采取预防措施以消除影响工人身心健康和
安全的隐患

保护发生工伤的工人的收入,
3
CSST的服务对象
Employers雇主
Workers工人
Partners伙伴
Suppliers服务商
Citizens居民
4
CSST执行的法律
AOHS :
职业卫生与安全法
AIAOD :
工业事故和职业病法
WCA :
工人赔偿法
CVCA :
犯罪受害者赔偿法
APGC :
良好公民促进法
AIVASMQ :
矿山和露天矿山石棉肺和硅肺病患者赔偿法
GECA :
政府雇员赔偿法(联邦法)
5
组织结构
联合董事会
 7位工人代表
 7位雇主代表
 1名董事会主席和首席执行官
工人和雇主共同:
确定
职业卫生
与安全项目
管理
6
CSST的工作重心
为工人和雇主提供高效服务
在整个魁北克省超过21处办公地点,近4000名员工
7
组织结构
Côte-Nord
Abitibi - Témiscamingue
Gaspésie
Îles-de-la-Madeleine
Saguenay - Lac-Saint-Jean
BasSaint-Laurent
Mauricie Centre du
Québec
Lanaudière
Île-de-Montréal
Québec
Chaudière Appalaches
Outaouais
Montréal 1
Montréal 2
Montréal 3
Montréal 4
Laurentides
Estrie
Laval
Yamaska
Valleyfield Longueuil RichelieuSalaberry
8
CSST 宗旨
管理魁北克省职业卫生与安全规划
预防
工业事故和
职业病
宗旨
为魁北克省
对工伤进行赔偿
职业卫生与
安全规划拨款
9
CSST (cont’d)宗旨
就预防而言:
 宣传职业卫生与安全理念
 帮助雇主和工人改善工作场所职业卫生与安
全,消除安全隐患
 对工作场所进行检查
10
宗旨:在预防-检查领域
制定、建议并执行职业卫生与安全政策(雇主、工人及其协会的参与)
建立标准,为制定和执行以下事项提供支持
 预案
 参与机制
 健康服务
 培训、信息和研究服务
监督职业卫生与安标准和法规的应用
确保工人和雇主在工作场所的法定权利和责任得到尊重
CSST对工作和职业卫生与安全(联邦企业除外)检查有唯一管辖权
11
CSST主要的伙伴
工会协会
 OHS 培训 + 信息
雇主协会
 OHS 培训+ 信息
 Ministère de la Santé et
 协调地区委员会和
and CLSC
des Services sociaux
 地区委员会(+ CLSC)
行业协会联盟

IRSST
 卫生项目, FSMP,
职业卫生信息
 OHS 培训, 信息, 研究和建议
 OHS 研究
12
行业协会联盟












省级管理
市级事务
社会事务
建筑
运输设备和机器制造
金属和电器产品的介绍
服装业
印刷业
矿业和矿山服务业
汽车服务
纺织和针织业
运输和仓储业
这些协会都是自愿成立的,但
是建筑行业协会联盟是职业卫
生与安全法令规定成立的。
13
行业协会联盟的宗旨
提供 :
 培训
 信息
 研究
 建议
 技术支持
在职业卫生与安全领域为参与特定行业活动的雇主
和工人提供以上服务
14
预防:
降低工伤的优先方案
职业卫生与安全法 重点
雇主
有义务为工人提供健康、安全的工作环境。
工人
必须遵守安全操作程序,采用安全工作方法并进行充分
的自我保护。
15
职业卫生与安全法与雇主
权利

接受职业卫生和安全培
训、信息及建议
责任







拥有能确保对工人进行保护的装备和设施
拥有安全工作的组织、方法和技术
采取措施和方法以确认、控制并消除可能影响工人卫生
与安全的隐患
采取法律规定的防火安全措施
提供安全并得到很好维护的设备
详细告知工人与工作相关的安全隐患,并提供合适的培
训和监督
为工人免费提供个人保护措施和设备并确保工人在工作
时使用。
16
职业卫生与安全法和工人
权利
卫生与安全工作环境
接受卫生与安全培训和建议
接受预防性和治疗性 卫生服务
接受福利::健康检查, 履行拒绝权
时的停工 赔偿,由安监员停工或
闭厂命令引起的停工赔偿
 从“安全分娩”项目中受益




责任






熟悉公司预案
通过使用保护方法保护自己身心健康和安
全
不要对其他人的身心健康和安全造成影响
按照公司卫生方案进行健康检查
帮助确认和消除在工作中的安全
遵纪守法,并与卫生与安全委员会及其他
相关方配合
17
拒绝权— 职业卫生与安全法
工人有拒绝工作的权利

如果有足够理由说明该项工作
使其本人或其他人员处于危险
之中
18
预防活动 — 职业卫生与安全法
Methods Available现有方式
 Prevention program预案
 Health program卫生方案
 Health and safety committee
卫生与安全委员会
 Prevention representative
预防代表
19
Prevention Program预案
All establishments should develop
a prevention program所有公司都要制定预案
第一组
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
建造和公共工程 (建筑)
化工行业
林业和锯木业
矿山、矿场和油井行业
金属产品制造业
第二组
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
木业 (不包括锯木业)
橡胶和塑料制品工业
运输设备制造业
金属初加工业
非金属矿产品制造
第三组
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
注意:
公共管理
餐饮业
家具业
造纸业及其相关活动
运输及仓储业
优
先
考
虑
群
体
拥有21人活或更多工人的公司必须向CSST上交预案
20
预案 (cont’d)
第四组
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
贸易
皮具行业
机器制造业 (不包括电器方面)
烟草业
纺织业
第五组
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
其他行业或个人服务业
通信、电力传输和其他设施
印刷、出版和相关活动
石油和煤产品制造
电器产品制造
第六组
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
农业
针织和服装业
教育和相关服务业
金融、保险和房地产
医疗和社会服务业
打猎和钓鱼
各种制造业
21
Program For A Safe Maternity安全分娩项目
如果员工怀孕后其工作环境影响到其身体健康或未出生的孩子的
健康,工人有权立即调整到其他更安全的岗位;否则,工人可以
暂时停止工作并领取生育福利。
注意:
这不是产假,而是一种预防方案,这种方案的初衷和重
点是使工人继续在安全的情况下工作
22
法规和社会合作伙伴
法规审核程序(1)
董事会
确定两方委员会的任务
采用建议以对法规进行修订
将文件提交政府机构
将立法项目发表在政府报上,征求公众意见(45 天)
将法规的终稿送部长内阁审批
23
法规和社会合作伙伴
法规审核程序 (2)
董事会两方委员会
临时或永久身份
劳资双方会员
观察员: 其他部门和机构
达成一致
对委员会的建议
对公众评论的分析
对董事会的新建议
24
法规和社会合作伙伴
法规审核程序 (3)
一些常务委员
矿业卫生与安全法规
建筑业安全法规
卫生与安全法规
临时委员会
危险产品信息法规
25
预防-检查
职业卫生与安全法 (1979)
 目标: 在源头消除致危因素
 手段 : 雇主和工人对工作场所事故和职业病
的预防负责
26
26
企业预防
 预防机制
预防方案
卫生方案
职业安全与卫生委员会
预防代表
 优先群体的强制要求
27
27
CSST 在预防领域的战略规划
重点
1: 针对重大致危因素的行动方案
建筑
机器安全
重点
2: 支持工作场所
中小企业
道路安全, 小企业的暴力行为,铍, 密闭空间等.
重点
3 : 培育预防文化
年轻人
28
青年人行动计划
教育
在学校提高预防意识
培训
将职业安全与卫生能力融入技术、
职业和大学教育培训
为未来的工人和雇主
培育一种预防文化
融合
在年轻人从事第一份工作时,
对其以及其雇主提供支持
29
30
建筑业行动方案
零容忍度
– 高坠防护
> 超过3米; 梯子
– 倒塌
> 脚手架 ; 沟渠
– 在电线附近工作
– 卫生
> 石棉和二氧化硅
31
机器安全行动方案
 限制进入机器危险区域
(运动部件)
 当运动部件可被接触到,并可能导致严重工伤时,CSST执
行零容忍政策。雇主和供应商将成为问责目标。
32
检查途径
说服并支持
企业承担职业卫生与安全方面的职责
强制执法
在危险情况下, 安监员可以:
. 签署命令
. 命令停止工作
. 关闭工作常说
33
安监员的权利
安监员可以
 进行询问
 检查
 签署命令
 罚款
 命令停工
 闭厂
34
34
安监员的干预
 投诉 : 请求干预,以调查对卫生与安全产生有害作用的
情况
 对投诉者保密
 客观了解事实
 确认致危因素
 让企业(工作场所)负责
 确保雇主有预防政策(方案)
 签署执行整改措施的命令
35
35
安监员干预
 拒绝权:针对工人有拒绝不安全工作的权利进行干预。
安监员 :
 进入工作场所
 收集工人的理由并且记录各方的立场
 促成各方对情况进行检测
 尽快判定是否存在支持工人拒绝权的致危因素
 在现场签署决定。
36
36
2009年起诉方面的数据
工人: 3 125 700
工作场所: 244 057
预防-检查文件: 15 688
检查: 32 721
Derogations: 55 144
起诉: 6 149
37
2010年的最高额处罚
236条
(个人 / 企业)
第一次违规: 1 000$ - 2 000$
第二次违规: 2 000$ -4 000$
二次以上违规: 4 000$ - 8 000$
38
2010年的最高额处罚
237条
(个人 / 企业)
第一次违规: 2 000$ -40 000$
第一次违规: 4 000$ - 100 000$
二次以上违规: 8 000$ -200 000$
39
WELCOME TO THE
CHINESE DELEGATION
Occupational Health and Safety in Québec
Law, regulations, policy and enforcement
Yves Brissette, Ph.D.
Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail
October 2010
40
Basics of Québec OHS Plan
 Social contract binding some 3 million
workers and their employers in the area of
OHS
 The Act respecting occupational health and
safety (AOHS) gives employers and workers
responsibility for taking charge of health and
safety in their workplace
41
Basics of Québec OHS Plan
Goals:

Implement prevention measures in order to
eliminate any danger to workers’ health, safety
and physical and mental integrity

Protect the income of workers who are victims
of a work-related injury
42
Clientele Served by the CSST
Employers
Workers
Partners
Suppliers
Citizens
43
Acts Administered by the CSST
AOHS :
Act respecting occupational health and safety
AIAOD :
Act respecting industrial accidents and
occupational diseases
WCA :
Workmen’s Compensation Act
CVCA :
Crime Victims Compensation Act
APGC :
Act to Promote Good Citizenship
AIVASMQ :
Act respecting indemnities for victims of asbestosis and
silicosis in mines and quarries
GECA :
Government Employees Compensation Act (federal act)
44
Organizational Structure
Joint Board of Directors
 7 worker representatives
 7 employer representatives
 1 Chairman of the Board and Chief
Executive Officer
Workers and employers work together to:
Define
occupational health
and safety programs
Manage
45
One of the CSST’s Priorities
EFFECTIVELY SERVE THE WORKER
AND EMPLOYER CLIENTELE
Nearly 4,000 employees spread over 21 offices
throughout Québec
46
Organization Structure
Côte-Nord
Abitibi - Témiscamingue
Gaspésie
Îles-de-la-Madeleine
Saguenay - Lac-Saint-Jean
BasSaint-Laurent
Mauricie Centre du
Québec
Lanaudière
Île-de-Montréal
Québec
Chaudière Appalaches
Outaouais
Montréal 1
Montréal 2
Montréal 3
Montréal 4
Laurentides
Estrie
Laval
Yamaska
Valleyfield Longueuil RichelieuSalaberry
47
Mission of the CSST
Administer the Québec occupational health and safety plan
PREVENTION
of industrial accidents
and occupational diseases
MISSION
COMPENSATION
of work-related
injuries
FUNDING
of the Québec
occupational health
and safety plan
48
Mission of the CSST (cont’d)
In terms of prevention :
 Promotion of occupational health and safety
 Assistance for workers and employers in their
efforts to improve their workplaces and eliminate
dangers
 Inspection of workplaces
49
Mandates : In the Area of Prevention-Inspection

Develop, propose and implement an occupational health and safety
policy (participation of employers, workers and their associations)

Establish standards, support the setting up and implementation of :




prevention programs
participation mechanisms
health services
training, information and research services

Monitor the application of OHS standards and regulations

Ensure that the legal rights and obligations of workers and employers
are respected in the workplace.
The CSST has sole jurisdiction over work inspection
and all aspects of occupational health and safety (excluding federal enterpises)
50
Main Partners of the CSST
Union Associations
 OHS training + information
 Employer Associations
 OHS training + information
 Ministère de la Santé et
 coordinates Regional Boards
and CLSC

des Services sociaux
 Regional Boards
(+ CLSC)
Associations
 OHS training, information, research
and advice
IRSST
 OHS research
 Joint Sector-Based

 health programs, FSMP,
occupational health information
51
Joint Sector-Based Associations
 Provincial Administration
 Municipal Affairs
 Social Affairs
 Construction
 Manufacture of Transportation Equipment and Machines
 Manufacture of Metal and Electrical Products
 Clothing
 Printing
 Mines and Mining Services
 Automobile Services
They have been established on a
 Textiles and Hosiery
voluntary basis except for
 Transportation and Storage
JSBA-Construction,which is
mandatory under the AOHS.
52
Mission of Joint Sector-Based Associations
Provide :



Training
Information
Research


Advice
Technical Assistance
in the area of occupational health and safety
to employers and workers
who are part of a given sector of activity
53
Prevention: Preferred Solution for
Reducing Injuries
AOHS
PRIORITIES
EMPLOYERS
Obligation to provide their workers with
healthy, safe working conditions.
WORKERS
Must follow safety procedures, adopt safe work
methods and protect themselves adequately.
54
The AOHS and Employers
RIGHTS

Receive occupational
health and safety training,
information and advice
OBLIGATIONS







Have properly equipped establishments in order to ensure the
protection of workers
Have safe work organization, methods and techniques
Use methods and techniques aimed at identifying, controlling
and eliminating dangers that may jeopardize workers’ health
and safety
Take the fire safety measures prescribed by regulation
Provide safe, properly maintained equipment
Inform workers thoroughly about the dangers related to their
jobs and provide them with the appropriate training and
supervision
Provide workers, free of charge, with all personal protection
methods and equipment and ensure that workers use them on
the job
55
The AOHS and Workers
RIGHTS





Healthy and safe working conditions
Receive health and safety training and
advice
Receive preventive and curative
health services
Receive his salary: health
examination, work stoppage due to
the exercise of the right of refusal,
work stoppage due to a suspension or
closure ordered by the inspector
Benefit from the “For A Safe
Maternity” program
OBLIGATIONS






Be familiar with their establishment’s
prevention program
Protect their health, safety and physical
integrity by using the protection methods at
their disposal
Do not endanger the health, safety and
physical integrity of others
Undergo the health examinations prescribed in
the establishment’s health program
Help identify and eliminate dangers at work
Cooperate with the health and safety
committee and other stakeholders in applying
the law
56
Right to Refuse — AOHS
A worker has the right
to refuse
to perform a job

if there are reasonable
grounds to believe that this
job exposes him, or another
person, to a danger
57
Prevention Activities — AOHS
Methods Available
 Prevention program
 Health program
 Health and safety committee
 Prevention representative
58
Prevention Program
All establishments should develop
a prevention program
GROUP I
GROUP II
1.
6. Wood industry (excluding sawmills)
7. Rubber and plastic products industry
8. Manufacture of transportation
equipment
9. Primary processing of metals
10. Manufacture of non-metal mineral
products
2.
3.
4.
5.
Buildings and public works
(construction)
Chemical industry
Forestry and sawmills
Mines, quarries and oil wells
Metal products manufacturing
GROUP III
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Public administration
Food and beverage industry
Furniture and furnishings industry
Paper industry and related activities
Transportation and storage
NOTE:
P
R
I
O
R
I
T
Y
G
R
O
U
P
S
An establishment with 21 or more workers must submit a
prevention program to the CSST.
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Prevention Program (cont’d)
GROUP IV
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Trade
Leather industry
Manufacture of machinery (except electrical)
Tobacco industry
Textile industry
GROUP V
21. Other business and personal services
22. Communications, power transmission and other
utilities
23. Printing, publishing and related activities
24. Manufacture of oil and coal products
25. Manufacture of electrical products
GROUP VI
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
Agriculture
Hosiery and apparel
Education and related services
Finance, insurance and real estate
Medical and social services
Hunting and fishing
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries
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Program For A Safe Maternity
When working conditions present
physical dangers for her, due to her pregnancy,
or for her unborn or nursing child,
a worker has the right to be assigned immediately
to other safer duties; otherwise,
she can stop working temporarily
and receive benefits.
NOTE:
This is not a maternity leave, but rather
a preventive program designed, first and foremost,
to allow a worker to continue working in
safety.
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Regulation and social partners
Regulatory review process (1)
Board of Directors
Define terms of reference of bipartite committees
Adopt proposals to amend regulations
Transmit file to governmental authorities
Publish regulatory projects in governmental gazette
for public consultation (45 jours)
Transmit the final version of regulations to ministerial
cabinet for approval
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Regulation and social partners
Regulatory Review Process (2)
Bipartite Committees of the Board
Ad hoc or permanent status
Labour and employer membership
Observers: other departments and agencies
Consensus seeking process
Proposals to the Board
Analysis of public comments
New proposal to the Board
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Regulation and social partners
Regulatory Review Process (3)
Some standing committees
Regulations Respecting Health and Safety in Mines
Safety Code in the Construction Industry
Regulations Respecting Health and Safetyl
An ad hoc committee
Regulations Respecting information on Controlled
Products
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Prevention-inspection
Occupational Health and Safety Act (1979)
 Goal : elimination of hazards at the source
 Means : employers and workers are
responsible for the prevention of workplace
accidents and occupational diseases
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Prevention in the enterprise
 Prevention mechanisms
Prevention programs
Health programs
OSH committees l
Prevention representatives
 Mandatory requiremets in priority groups
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CSST Strategic Plan
in terms of prevention
Priority
1: Act on greatest hazards
Construction
Machine Safety
Priority
2: Support workplaces
Small and Medium Enterprises
Road Safety, violence in small businesses, beryllium,
confined spaces etc.

Priority
3 : Devlop a culture of prevention
Youth
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Youth Action Plan
EDUCATION
Raise prevention awareness
in schools
TRAINING
Integrate OSH competencies in
technical, professional and university
training
Devlop a culture of
prevention amongst
future workers and
employers
INTEGRATION
Support youth in their first
employment, and their employers.
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Construction Action Plan
Zero Tolerance
– Fall protection
> more than 3 meters; ladders
– Collapsing
> scaffoldingd ; trenching
– Work close to electric lines
– Health
> Asbestos and cristalline silica
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Machine Safety Action Plan
 Limit access to dangerous zones in machines
(moving parts)
 CSST implements a Zero Tolerance policy when moving
parts are accessible and can cause serious injuries to
workers. Employers and suppliers are targeted.
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Approaches to Inspection
CONVINCE AND SUPPORT
enterprises in terms of
taking responsibility for OHS
COMPEL
In dangerous situations, the inspector can :
. issue orders
. stop work
. close workplace
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INSPECTORS’ POWERS
Inspectors can
 Conduct an enquiry
 Inspect
 Issue orders
 Impose fines
 Suspend work
 Close a workplace
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Interventions of inspectors
 Complaint : request of intervention to investigate a
situation that could have a detrimental effect on health
or safety
 Protect confidentiality of the requester
 Understand facts objectively
 Identify hazards
 Make the workplace responsible
 Make sure the employer has a prevention policy
 Order correction measures to be implemented
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Interventions of inspectors
 Right to refuse : intervention following the exercise of
the right to refuse a dangerous work by a worker.
The inspector :
 visits the workplace
 gathers worker’s reasons and notes parties’
positions
 fosters parties to examine the situation
 determines as soon as possible if there is a
hazard to justify the refusal
 issues a decision on the spot.
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Prosecutions in 2009
Workers: 3 125 700
Workplaces: 244 057
Prevention-inspection files: 15 688
Inspections: 32 721
Derogations: 55 144
Prosecutions: 6 149
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Maximum Fines in 2010
section 236
(person / enterprise)
1st offense: 1 000$ / 2 000$
2nd offense: 2 000$ / 4 000$
More than 2: 4 000$ / 8 000$
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Maximum Fines in 2010
section 237
(person / enterprise)
1st offense: 2 000$ / 40 000$
2nd offense: 4 000$ / 100 000$
More than 2: 8 000$ / 200 000$
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