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Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI)

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Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI)
Sexually
Transmitted
Infections
(STIs)
www.healthunit.org
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Overview
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Definition of STIs: “What are they?”
Transmission: “How are they spread?”
Types of infection:
– Bacterial (Chlamydia, LGV, Gonorrhea, Syphilis)
– Viral (HSV, Hepatitis B, HIV, HPV)
– Parasitic (Pubic lice, scabies, trichomoniasis)
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Prevention: “How can I protect myself?”
Testing: “Where can I go for help?”
www.healthunit.org
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Sexually Transmitted Infections

Infections that are most commonly
passed through sexual contact:
• Oral
• Vaginal
• Anal
• Skin-to-skin
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
TRANSMISSION

In order for transmission to occur, it is
necessary to have:
– A body fluid with the germ in it
– A way of spreading the germ from one
person to another
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
BODY FLUIDS: Which one’s are
considered infectious?
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Semen
Vaginal fluid
Blood
Fluid in sores or
blisters
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Saliva
Tears
Sweat
Urine
Ear wax
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
METHODS OF TRANSMISSION:
Low Risk or No Risk
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Abstaining
Hugging
Kissing
Holding hands
Dancing
Sitting on toilets
 Sharing lip balm
 Mutual
monogamy
 Massage
 Sharing forks,
knives, etc.
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
METHODS OF TRANSMISSION:
High Risk
 Sexual Intercourse
 vaginal
 anal
 oral
 Blood-to-blood contact
 Sharing needles or other drug-use
equipment
 Tattoo or body piercing
 Infected mother to her baby www.healthunit.org
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Bacterial vs. Viral STI’s
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Bacterial STI’s include
Chlamydia, LGV,
gonorrhea & syphilis
Can be treated and
cured with antibiotics
Untreated infection can
cause PID, infertility, &
epididymitis
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Viral STI’s include
HPV, HIV, Herpes, &
Hepatitis B
There is NO cure
Medication available to
treat symptoms only
Can pass onto others
for the rest of your life
www.healthunit.org
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Chlamydia
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The most common bacterial STI
Greatest number of infections found in
people 15 to 24 years old
Untreated, it can affect the cervix and
urethra, and occasionally the rectum, throat
and eye
50% have NO symptoms - men and women
Can be treated with antibiotics
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
CHLAMYDIA
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
CHLAMYDIA - Epididymitis
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
GONORRHEA
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The 2nd most common bacterial STI
Most common in people aged 15 to 29
Can affect the cervix, urethra, rectum,
throat, and occasionally the eyes
Can be treated with antibiotics
Often NO symptoms, especially in
females
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
GONORRHEA: Signs & Symptoms

Female
– Increased vaginal
discharge
– Painful urination
– Lower abdominal
pain
– Bleeding after sex
and between
periods
– Pain during sex

Male
– Thick, yellowishgreen discharge
from penis
– Painful urination
– Testicular pain or
swelling
– Rectal pain,
discharge or itching
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
GONORRHEA
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
SYPHILIS
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A bacterial infection that progresses in
stages
– Primary: (3 days – 3 months) starts as a
small, painless sore called a chancre;
goes away on it’s own
– Secondary: (2 – 24 weeks) rash on the
body, palms of hands & soles of feet, hair
loss, feeling sick
– Latent: lesions or rashes can recur
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
SYPHILIS - Complications
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Untreated syphilis may lead to tertiary
syphilis, which can damage:
– The cardiovascular system (heart & blood
vessels)
– The neurological system
– Other major organs of the body
– Complications may lead to death
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
Genital Herpes
(Herpes Simplex Virus - HSV)
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Two types: HSV-1, causing cold sores, and HSV-2,
causing genital herpes
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It is a viral infection causing outbreaks of painful
sores and blisters
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Spread through direct vaginal, oral or anal sexual
contact with an infected partner
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Also transmitted by receiving oral sex from a
partner with a history of cold sores
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Symptoms can be treated with antiviral medications,
but NO CURE
www.healthunit.org
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Genital Herpes – Signs & Symptoms
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Prior to an outbreak, the person may feel a
tingling or burning sensation where the virus
first entered the skin
Painful sores (external or internal)
Inflammation and redness
Fever
Muscular pain
Tender lymph nodes
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
Genital Herpes
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
Hepatitis B (HBV)
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Virus that attacks the liver
Most infected people (90%) naturally produce
antibodies to fight the disease, but some
develop chronic HBV and will carry the virus
for the rest of their life
Chronic infection can lead to liver damage,
cirrhosis, and cancer
There is NO CURE, but vaccination can
prevent infection
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
Hepatitis B
Woman suffering from liver cancer caused by HBV
Photo courtesy of
Patricia Walker, MD
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
Human Papilloma Virus or HPV
(Genital Warts)
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One of the most common STIs
About 75% of people will have at least one
HPV infection during their lifetime
There are over 100 types of HPV
Low-risk HPV types cause genital warts
High-risk HPV types may cause cancer of
the cervix
There is NO CURE, but vaccination is
available to prevent certain types of HPV
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
HPV – Signs & Symptoms
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Many people with low-risk types have
no symptoms
Other HPV types may cause:
– Warts on vulva, cervix, penis, scrotum,
anus or in the urethra
– Itchiness
– Discomfort and bleeding during sex
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
HIV/AIDS

HIV is a virus that destroys the immune
system over time, robbing the body of its
ability to fight other infections and illnesses
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Once the immune system is weakened,
other infections occur and AIDS develops
(the fatal stage of HIV infection)
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The virus is present in blood, semen,
vaginal secretions & breast milk
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
HIV / AIDS – Signs & Symptoms
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2 to 4 weeks after exposure, some people
experience mild flu-like symptoms that last a
few weeks, then disappear
Many people have NO symptoms until years
after exposure
The only way to know is to get TESTED!
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
Pubic Lice & Scabies
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Infections caused by parasitic infestations
Pubic lice: tiny crab-like insects that nest in
pubic hair & bite their host to feed on blood
Scabies: mites that burrow below the
surface of the skin to lay their eggs
Can live for 1 – 3 days on bedding, towels
and clothing
Treated with medicated creams & lotions
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
Pubic Lice
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
Scabies mite
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
STI Prevention
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Abstain from sexual intercourse (only
method that is 100% effective)
Don’t share needles or other drug-use
equipment
Have only 1 mutually faithful, uninfected
sexual partner
Get tested for STI’s before having sex
Use a latex condom & spermicide
Avoid alcohol & other drugs
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
When should I get tested?
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Once you become sexually active, you need
a check-up & STI testing once a year
You also need an STI test if:
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You didn’t use a condom or the condom broke
Your partner has an STI
Your partner is having sex with someone else
You have ever injected drugs
You or your partner have any STI symptoms
You have been raped
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
Where to go for help:
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Parents
Health Teacher
Health Unit Clinic
Family Doctor or Nurse Practitioner
Walk-in-clinic
Hospital Emergency Department
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
Remember…
…your medical information will
always remain CONFIDENTIAL!
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Sexually Transmitted Infections
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