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Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria

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Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
Bacteria are Prokaryotes – No nucleus or
organelles bound in membranes
DNA is a single circular chromosome
No Histones associated with DNA
Cell Walls of peptidoglycan (polymer of NAG
and NAM cross-linked with polypeptide chain)
Smaller ribosome unit
Divide by binary fission (not mitosis)
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
Typical bacteria diagram
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
Another bacteria diagram
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
Bacterial Chromosme in “nucleoid area”
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
Bacterial chromosome and an extra-chromosomal “plasmid”
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
Smaller ribosome than eukaryotes, same function: protein
synthesis
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
Bacteria divide by “binary fission”
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
Eukaryotes – “true nucleus”, and membrane bound organelles
DNA is membrane bound, inside nucleus, nuclear membrane is a double
membrane
Chromosomes are usually multiple (paired), and have special histone
protein associated with the DNA molecules
Membrane bound “organelles”: packages where specialized functions
take place: mitochondria, lysosome, ER, Golgi, etc.
Cell wall if present is chemically simple (cellulose, or chitin)
Slightly larger ribosome
Cells divide by a process like mitosis (and can have meiosis too)
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
Typical Eukaryote cell Diagram: More in
chapter 5
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
Bacterial appendages: Pilli (fimbriae) and Flagella
Pilli are short, hair-like, protein: function “adherence” – stick
to each other, stick to surfaces, harder to wash away
Specialized “sex” pilus - conjugation
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
Flagella: complex organ of motility, a “motor” VERY COOL
A = monotrichous B = amphitrichous C = lophotrichous D = peritrichous
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Bacterial “Envelope” – Structures on the outside of
bacteria:
• Glycocalyx – sugar coat, if tightly bound = capsule
– Protects and prevents from drying, also protects from
phagocytes
– Slimy, and often a significant component of “biofilms”
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Outer membrane (outside of cell wall) found in Gram (-)
bacteria
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Outer membrane (outside of cell wall) found in Gram (-) bacteria
• Gram – bacteria have LPS (lipopolysaccharide), lipoprotein, and
phospholipids
• These can cause some of the symptoms of Gram – bacterial
infections (fever, shock, diarrhea)
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Bacterial Cell Wall – macromolecule, polysaccharide, repeating
sugars, NAG and NAM, cross-linked with shot chains of Amino Acids
• “Peptidoglycan, aka: murein”
• Tough outer coat, prevents rupture, protects cell, gives it its distinct
shape
• Certain antibiotics work by inhibiting cell wall synthesis (penicillins)
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Bacterial Cell Wall
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Gram + and Gram – bacteria have differences in Cell Wall and outer
envelope (the theory of why the grams stain works is based on this
difference)
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Gram + and Gram – bacteria have differences in Cell Wall and outer
envelope (the theory of why the grams stain works is based on this
difference) Gram – are less sensitive to penicillin as a result of
thinner CW and outer membrane
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Grams stain = a differential stain procedure, different results, + and
(-)
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Grams stain = a differential stain procedure, different results, + and
(-)
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Gram negative cell envelope much more complicated
than Gram +: lipid, phospholipid, lipid A, peiplasmic
space (fluid filled area between cell wall and outer
membrane), various protein porons
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Bacterial cell “shapes” A=bacillus or pl. bacilli B= round, coccus,
cocci pl., in chains “Streptococcus) C. Staphylococcus – clusters
D= diplococcus E=Spirillum, spirilla pl. (spirochete is a corkscrew
shape – not shown) F= vibrio, more comma shaped
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Cell shape is determined by the genetic
character of the organism. Its genes code for
the synthesis of the CW material and the cell
division mechanism that results in a “round” or
“rod” or “spiral” shape
• One of the criteria used in ID of bacteria
• Coupled with gram reaction = helpful
– Ex. Gram + cocci in clusters is “Staphylococcus”
Gram (-) bacilli, motile, green sheen on EMB is E.coli
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Bacterial cell membrane: regulates what moves in and
out of the cytoplasm
• Diffusion –concentration gradients > high to low
• Osmosis – diffusion of water across a semipermeable
membrane
– Isotonic
– Hypertonic
– Hypotonic
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–
***REVIEW ON YOUR OWN***
Passive transport
Active transport
Engulfment (phagocytosis, pinocytosis)
Specialized group translocation
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Inside the bacterial cytoplasm
• Nuceloid – area containing the bacterial chromosome
(DNA)
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Inside the bacterial cytoplasm
• Plasmid – Extrachromosomal DNA, not part of “genome”, different
genes
• Can transfer in a process – conjugation across sex pilus, change the
genetic character of the recipient
• Tool of “genetic”engineer
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
•
•
•
•
Inside the bacterial cytoplasm
Ribosomes: structure made of RNA, site of protein synthesis
Some antibiotics work by messing with the “ribosome”
Slightly smaller than our eukaryote ribosome, so antibiotic can work
on bacteria but not affect us (selective toxicity)
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Inside the bacterial cytoplasm
• Inclusions: granules of sugar, lipid storage, etc. (storage)
• Endospores (Genus: Bacillus and Clostridium) Hardiest of bacterial
structures. Difficult to kill with heat or chemical. Autoclave: 121
degree C, 15 lbs/sq. in. pressure – to penetrate thick coat and
destroy genome of bacteria. Purpose: survival not reproduction
• Inclusions:
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Inside the bacterial cytoplasm More spores:
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Taxonomy and Bacteria: Yucch!!!!!!
• We use Bergey’s Manual for rapid ID of bacteria. Started in the
• 1940’s, before a lot of modern tech. invented
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Taxonomy and Bacteria: Yucch!!!!!!
• We use Bergey’s Manual: Based on 3 primary things:
• 1. Cell Wall (or lack of cell wall) – Gram reaction (+) or (-)
• 2. Cell Morphology (shape) Bacillus, Coccus, Spirillum, Vibrio
• 3. Biochemical characteristics: sugars they ferment, enzymes like
catalase and oxidase, decarboxylase, etc.
• More modern techniques used today to get very specific “strains”
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–
–
–
Serological groups (antigen - antibody reactions)
DNA hybridization studies Ex. E.coli 0157H7 or
DNA fingerprinting
Azotobacter vinelandii 12837
Bacterial viruses (phage typing)
Microbiology – Chapter 4, Bacteria
• Taxonomy and Bacteria: Yucch!!!!!!
• Flow charts are useful – we will use them in our unknowns
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