Baryogenesis and the New Cosmology

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Baryogenesis and the New Cosmology
Cosmological Connections
Mark Trodden
Syracuse University
Plenary Talk
LC Workshop, SLAC
• The ALCPG Working Group on Cosmological
• Our Motivations
• Our Goals
• Practical Information
Very much an overview here - we have three exciting parallel
sessions packed with details that I’ll refer to later.
See also Thursday evening (6:15-7:00) talk by
Michael Turner: “Accelerators, Astrophysics
and Funding”
The ALCPG Working Group
on Cosmological Connections
Editorial Committee:
• Marco Battaglia (Berkeley)
• Jonathan Feng (Irvine, co-Chair) [email protected]
• Norman Graf (SLAC)
• Michael Peskin (SLAC)
• Mark Trodden (Syracuse, co-Chair) [email protected]
• Have contacted all respondents to initial announcement
and are inviting many others to join the effort (~ 60 so far).
• International participation encouraged.
• Anticipate an author list consisting of active participants.
Dark Energy
• Positive pressure matter
slows the expansion
• Negative pressure matter
speeds up the expansion
• So SN IA results depend on
• These observations in wonderful agreement with:
• weak lensing measurements,
•large scale structure observations,
• Plus …
Putting it Together w/the CMB
Increasingly precise CMB measurements
(WMAP, Boomerang, Maxima, DASI, CBI, …)
• Position of first peak depends
on spatial geometry of universe
• Depends ~ tot=matter+
(Wayne Hu, 2003)
tot = 1.02 0.02
The New Paradigm
• Strange new universe
• baryon~ 0.05
• matter~ 0.30
• ~ 0.65
We know what these particles are but not
why they haven’t met their antiparticles
We don’t know what these particles are
but we have some well-motivated ideas
We have absolutely no idea what this stuff is
and we have no ideas that are well-motivated
and well-developed!
Topics of Primary Interest
• Issues raised enhance and sharpen the search for the
Higgs boson, supersymmetry, extra dimensions…
• Need particle physics and cosmology to find the answers.
• Explore what a Linear Collider will bring to this enterprise.
Have identified four potential areas of connections
between linear collider physics and cosmology
Dark matter
Cosmic rays
Inflation and dark energy
direct connection
Briefly discuss each of these soon
Dark Matter
Neutralino Dark Matter (joint session with SUSY WG), Thursday 1:45 - 2:05
(Paolo Gondolo, Marco Battaglia, Uriel Nauenberg, Bhaskar Dutta, Howard Baer)
More about Dark Matter, Thursday 4:05 - 6:05 (Yudi Santoso, Andreas
Birkedal-Hansen, Michael Peskin, Fumihiro Takayama, Shufang Su, Antonio Dobado
A prime dark matter candidate is the WIMP
 a new stable particle .
Number density n determined by
Dilution from
  f f
• Initially, <v> term dominates, so n ≈ neq.
• Eventually, n becomes so small that the dilution
term dominates and the co-moving number
density is fixed (freeze out).
Abundance of WIMPs
Universe cools, leaves
residue of dark matter with
DM ~ 0.1 (Weak/)
Freeze out
• Weakly-interacting particles
w/ weak-scale masses give
observed DM
• Strong, fundamental, and
independent motivation for
new physics at weak scale
• Could use the LC as a dark matter laboratory
• Discover WIMPs and determine their properties
• Consistency between properties (particle physics) and
abundance (cosmology) may lead to understanding of
Universe at T = 10 GeV, t = 10-8 s.
An Example: Neutralinos
• In more detail:  annihilation sensitive to many processes.
(eR−e+ +-) (fb)
• Requires precise knowledge of 
mass and Sfermion masses (from
• Also  gaugino-ness (through
polarized cross sections)
• and m to ~ few GeV
Model-independent determination
of c to a few % challenging but
possible at LHC/LC.
Feng, Murayama, Peskin, Tata (1995)
Neutralino Dark Matter (joint session with SUSY WG), Thursday 1:45 - 2:05
(Paolo Gondolo, Marco Battaglia, Uriel Nauenberg, Bhaskar Dutta, Howard Baer)
Important Questions
• Axions and superheavy candidates will escape the LC.
• But can the LC carry out this program for all thermal
relics (and distinguish the various possibilities)
Neutralino dark matter
Kaluza-Klein dark matter
Scalar dark matter
SuperWIMP dark matter
Branon dark matter
• This will require a detailed and specific program of analysis
Baryogenesis and Exotica, Friday 10:50 - 12:50
(Daniel Chung, Hitoshi Murayama, Shamit Kachru, Zacharia Chacko,
Sean Carroll, Jonathan Feng)
BBN and CMB have determined the cosmic baryon content:
Bh2 = 0.024 ± 0.001
To achieve this a particle theory requires (Sakharov, 1968) :
• Violate Baryon number (B) symmetry
• Violate the Charge conjugation and Charge-Parity
symmetries (C & CP)
• Depart from thermal equilibrium (because
of the CPT theorem !!! More about this later.)
• There are LOTS of ways to do this!
An Important Clue for
Particle Physics
• Many scenarios for baryogenesis rely on physics at the
GUT scale. In these cases the LC will have little to add.
• However, an attractive and testable possibility is that
the asymmetry is generated at the weak scale.
• The Standard Model of particle physics, even
though in principle it satisfies all 3 Sakharov
criteria, (anomaly, CKM matrix, finite-temperature
phase transition) cannot be sufficient to explain
the baryon asymmetry!
• This is a clear indication, from observations of the
universe, of physics beyond the standard model!
Electroweak Baryogenesis
• Requires more CP violation than in SM
• (Usually) requires a (sufficiently strong) 1st order
thermal EW phase transition in the early universe
Physics involved is all testable in principle at colliders.
Small extensions needed can all be found in SUSY,
Testability of electroweak scenarios leads to tight constraints
Bounds and Tests
• In supersymmetry, sufficient asymmetry is generated for
light Higgs, light top squark, large CP phases
• Promising for LC!
• Severe upper bound on lightest Higgs boson mass,
mh <120 GeV (in the MSSM)
• Stop mass may be close to experimental bound and
must be < top quark mass.
(Carena, Quiros, Seco and Wagner, 2002)
• In allowed parameter
space - BR(bsg)
different from SM case.
• For typical spectrum
(light charged Higgs)
BR(bsg) somewhat > SM
case, but not always
Baryogenesis Parameters at
the LC
Top squark parameter constraints
for 10 fb-1 using e-R,Le+  stop pairs
CP phase constraints using
chargino/neutralino masses and
cross sections
Barger et al. (2001)
Bartl et al. (1997)
Important Questions
• How well can we determine B in this scenarios?
• Are there other weak-scale scenarios the LC can
• Does the LC have anything to say about GUT-scale
Cosmic Rays
• Observed with energies ~1019 eV
 ECM~100 TeV in collisions.
• ECM > any man-made collider.
• Cosmic rays are already exploring
energies above the weak scale!
B factories
• Miniscule luminosities.
• Event reconstruction sparse and
Colliders may help interpret upcoming
ultrahigh energy data.
The GZK Paradox
• Protons with ~1020 eV energies quickly lose energy
p gCMB  n p+
so must be emitted from nearby, but no local sources
• Solutions:
– Bottom-up: e.g., CRs are gluino-hadrons.
– Top-down: CRs result from topological defect decays,
should produce up-going cosmic neutralinos if SUSY
Testable predictions for colliders.
Inflation and Dark Energy
• We know essentially nothing about dark energy
• Tied to our ignorance about the cosmological constant.
• Exploration of Higgs boson(s) and potential may give
insights into scalar particles, vacuum energy.
• Vacuum is full of virtual particles carrying energy.
• Should lead to a constant vacuum energy. How big?
 ~ M
Still 1060 too big!
•While calculating branching ratios - easy to forget SUSY
is a space-time symmetry.
• A SUSY state | obeys Q |=0, so H |{Q,Q} |=0
• Only vacuum energy comes from SUSY breaking!
Other Possibilities
Inflation and dark energy may be due to fundamental scalars
or extra-dimensional dynamics:
Use scalar fields to source Einstein’s equation.
Gravity in the bulk, SM fields
only on the (visible) brane.
• Possible LC will provide much-needed insight into these
• The LC alone can probe details of the Higgs potential - don’t
expect it to be the inflaton, but would be our first prototype
of a scalar potential.
• Particle physics/cosmology connection is of growing
interest to researchers, policy makers, and the general
• This role of all accelerators in exploring this connection
is worth highlighting. A new HEPAP Committee, chaired
by Persis Drell, will do exactly this.
Our charge from Jim Brau and Mark Oreglia
Form working group in ALCPG framework
Determine and prioritize topics with potential
Produce white paper by Fall 2004
Some Specifics
• Detector effects and (machine-induced) backgrounds
may be important - address with serious program of studies.
• If LC/Cosmo connection is to boost the LC physics case
need realistic and robust simulation result.
• Use cosmology data to understand regions of parameters/
physics signatures challenging for the LC - motivate studies.
• Interplay with the LHC data very important - what
improvements will LC bring over LHC alone?
• Which are the LC energy thresholds important to ensure
sensitivity to cosmology-motivated phenomenology ?
• Produce a white paper focused on the LC, stating the
case in a clear and balanced way. Expect ~50 page
document, summarizing old and new work, and targeting
audience of particle physicists, astrophysicists,
cosmologists, and astronomers.
• [April 2004: Possible meeting at LCWS 04, Paris.]
• July 2004: Parallel sessions at ALCPG Meeting, Victoria.
Contributions finalized.
• September 2004: White paper submitted to ALCPG
Executive Committee.
We’re hoping you’d like to sign on and help us - you’ll find
examples of what is going on in our 3 parallel sessions!
-Thank You -
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