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Introduction to Earth Science Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice

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Introduction to Earth Science Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Introduction to Earth Science
Preview
•
Multiple Choice
•
Short Response
•
Reading Skills
•
Interpreting Graphics
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Multiple Choice
1. A tested explanation of a natural phenomenon that has
become widely adopted is a scientific
A.
B.
C.
D.
hypothesis.
law.
theory.
observation.
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Multiple Choice
1. A tested explanation of a natural phenomenon that has
become widely adopted is a scientific
A.
B.
C.
D.
hypothesis.
law.
theory.
observation.
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Multiple Choice, continued
2. If experimental results do not match their predictions,
scientists generally will
F.
G.
H.
I.
repeat the experiment until they do match.
make the measurements more precise.
revise their working hypothesis.
change their experimental results.
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Multiple Choice, continued
2. If experimental results do not match their predictions,
scientists generally will
F.
G.
H.
I.
repeat the experiment until they do match.
make the measurements more precise.
revise their working hypothesis.
change their experimental results.
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Multiple Choice, continued
3. Scientists who study weather charts to analyze trends
and to predict future weather events are
A.
B.
C.
D.
astronomers.
environmental scientists.
geologists.
meteorologists.
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Multiple Choice, continued
3. Scientists who study weather charts to analyze trends
and to predict future weather events are
A.
B.
C.
D.
astronomers.
environmental scientists.
geologists.
meteorologists.
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Multiple Choice, continued
4. What type of model uses molded clay, soil, and
chemicals to simulate a volcanic eruption?
F.
G.
H.
I.
conceptual model
physical model
mathematical model
computer model
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Multiple Choice, continued
4. What type of model uses molded clay, soil, and
chemicals to simulate a volcanic eruption?
F.
G.
H.
I.
conceptual model
physical model
mathematical model
computer model
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Multiple Choice, continued
5. Which of the following is an example of a new
technology?
A. a tool that is designed to help a doctor better
diagnose patients
B. a previously unknown element that is
discovered in nature
C. a law that is passed to fund scientists
conducting new experiments
D. scientists who record observations on the
movement of a star
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Multiple Choice, continued
5. Which of the following is an example of a new
technology?
A. a tool that is designed to help a doctor better
diagnose patients
B. a previously unknown element that is
discovered in nature
C. a law that is passed to fund scientists
conducting new experiments
D. scientists who record observations on the
movement of a star
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Short Response
6. What is the term for the factors that change as a result
of a scientific experiment?
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Short Response
6. What is the term for the factors that change as a result
of a scientific experiment?
dependent variables
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Short Response, continued
7. Why do scientists often review one another’s work
before it is published?
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Short Response, continued
7. Why do scientists often review one another’s work
before it is published?
to determine the validity of the results and conclusions
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Reading Skills
Read the passage below. Then, answer questions 8–10.
Scientific Investigation
Scientists look for answers by asking questions. These questions are
often answered through experimentation and observation. For example,
scientists have wondered if there is some relationship between Earth’s core
and Earth’s magnetic field.
To form their hypothesis, scientists started with what they knew: Earth
has a dense, solid inner core and a molten outer core. They then created a
computer model to simulate how Earth’s magnetic field is generated. The
model predicted that Earth’s inner core spins in the same direction as the
rest of Earth does but slightly faster than the surface does. If the hypothesis
is correct, it might explain how Earth’s magnetic field is generated. But how
could the researchers test the hypothesis? Because scientists do not have
the technology to drill to the core, they had to get their information indirectly.
To do this, they decided to track the seismic waves that are created by
earthquakes. These waves travel through Earth, and scientists can use them
to infer information about the core.
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Reading Skills, continued
8. The possibility of a connection between Earth’s core
and Earth’s magnetic field formed the basis of the
scientists’ what?
F.
G.
H.
I.
theory
law
hypothesis
fact
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Reading Skills, continued
8. The possibility of a connection between Earth’s core
and Earth’s magnetic field formed the basis of the
scientists’ what?
F.
G.
H.
I.
theory
law
hypothesis
fact
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Reading Skills, continued
9. To begin their investigation, the scientists first built a
model. What did this model predict?
A. Earth’s outer core is molten, and the inner core is
solid.
B. Earth’s inner core is molten, and the outer core is
solid.
C. Earth’s inner core spins in the same direction as
the rest of Earth does.
D. Earth’s outer core spins in the same direction as
the rest of Earth does.
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Reading Skills, continued
9. To begin their investigation, the scientists first built a
model. What did this model predict?
A. Earth’s outer core is molten, and the inner core is
solid.
B. Earth’s inner core is molten, and the outer core is
solid.
C. Earth’s inner core spins in the same direction as
the rest of Earth does.
D. Earth’s outer core spins in the same direction as
the rest of Earth does.
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Reading Skills, continued
10. Why might the scientists have chosen to build a
computer model of Earth, instead of a physical model
of Earth?
Because of the complexity of the inner workings of
Earth, a computer model would be more practical and
accurate than a physical model would be in this case.
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Interpreting Graphics
The diagram below shows the four major areas studied by
Earth scientists. Use this diagram to answer question 11.
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Interpreting Graphics, continued
11. A scientist studying the events that take place in area C
would be primarily concerned with which of the
following?
F. Earth’s age
G. Earth’s weather
H. movement of waves and tides
I. movement of the stars across the sky
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Interpreting Graphics, continued
11. A scientist studying the events that take place in area C
would be primarily concerned with which of the
following?
F. Earth’s age
G. Earth’s weather
H. movement of waves and tides
I. movement of the stars across the sky
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Interpreting Graphics, continued
Use the flowchart below to answer question 12.
Introduction to Earth Science
Standardized Test Prep
Interpreting Graphics, continued
12. What are two possible outcomes of the experimental process?
What would a scientist do with the information gathered during the
experimental process?
Answers should include the following: scientific methods are
logical ways of solving problems but are not sets of steps that are
followed in an invariable sequence, nor that lead to an invariable
outcome; possible outcomes include new observations and data
collection; scientists analyze data to decide whether the data
support or disprove a hypothesis; if data disprove a hypothesis, the
hypothesis is rethought; not only do experimental results
sometimes lead to new hypothesis, but they also may open new
avenues for investigation by suggesting new questions.
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