...

Antibiotics

by user

on
Category:

surgery

2

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

Antibiotics
Antibiotics
I.
Consequences of inappropriate
antibiotic therapy
• Inappropriate antibiotic therapy can lead to
increases in:
– mortality
– morbidity
– resistance selection
Inappropriate antibiotic therapy can
be defined as:
– ineffective empiric treatment of bacterial
infection
– the wrong choice, dose or duration of
therapy
– use of an antibiotics to which the bacterial
pathogens are resistant
Clinical evidence suggests that use of
appropriate antibiotic therapy
improves patient outcomes in terms of:
–reduced mortality
–reduced morbidity
• Antibiotic mode of action:
– cell wall synthesis inhibitors
– protein synthesis inhibitors
– nucleic acid synthesis inhibitors
– cytoplasmic membrane function inhibitors
– other agents that affect DNA
Resistance to antibacterial agents
• Antibiotic resistance is a result of innate
consequences or is acquired from other
sources
• Bacteria acquire resistance by:
– mutation
– addition of new DNA
Mechanisms of antibacterial
resistance (1)
• Modification of antibiotic target site, resulting
in:
– reduced antibiotic binding
– formation of a new metabolic pathway
Mechanisms of antibacterial
resistance (2)
• Changed uptake of antibiotics, resulting in:
– decreased permeability
– increased efflux
Mechanisms of antibacterial
resistance (3)
• Inactivation of antibiotics
– production of enzymes that inactivate antibiotics
• -lactamases
• aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes
Fly UP