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Which religion gave rise to the caste system?

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Which religion gave rise to the caste system?
Belief Systems
Hinduism
Click on picture for video
A. Hinduism has no
single founder, but
originated from the
mixing of Harappan and
Aryan cultures in ancient
India around 1500 BCE.
B. Hindus believe in
one unifying spirit,
Brahman. Brahman
can manifest in many,
polytheistic, forms or
in one, monotheistic.
C. Hinduism is based on
the concept of
reincarnation (Spirits
return to earth many
times in different forms
trying to become one
with Brahman). The
soul moves up or down
a depending on their
behavior in life.
D. A person moves
closer to Brahman by
obeying the law of
karma.
E. Karma is the sum of
all your deeds, good and
bad. Good deeds
involve following your
dharma, or duties
dependent on your
position, gender and
occupation.
F. The caste system (outlawed since 1948) was
an important part of Hinduism. Castes are
social classes into which a person is born and
lives their entire life. If a person has a good
karma they may be reincarnated into a higher
caste.
This life
Next life
Good Karma
Higher caste
Bad Karma
Lower caste
Born into
A caste
G. Over the centuries
Hindu beliefs were
recorded into a number
of sacred texts including
the Vedas and the
Upanishads.
The Ramayana is a
Hindu creation story.
Caste System
3 Practices of Hinduism
1. The system means there
is a division in society.
2. This system is
dependent upon
someone ‘s occupation
(job).
3. The four levels in the
cast system are priests,
soldiers, merchants,
laborers.
(see next slide)
•
1. Worship
.2. Cremation
3. Compliance with the
rules of the Caste
The caste system separated Indian society into
distinct social classes in which everyone knew
their place and believed that if they followed the
dharma of their caste, they would be
reincarnated into a better caste.
Brahmin (priests)
Kshatriya (soldiers)
Vaisya (merchants)
Sudra (laborers)
Untouchables (lowest,
most despicable level)
The social
Classes in the
Caste System
Hindus often pilgrimage to sacred
rivers, temples and mountains in India
because they believe that gods have
appeared in these places.
Ganges River
Koneswaram Temple,
Sri Lanka
Amarnath Cave
Pilgrimage
Buddhism
Video on Buddhism
A. Buddhism was
founded by Siddhartha
Gautama in northern
India around 560 BCE.
B. Gautama was born
into a wealthy Hindu
family, but renounced
his wealth to seek
spiritual
enlightenment (the
“light-bulb” or a-ha
moment when one
understands life).
Buddhism is based on the Four Noble Truths.
1.Suffering
exists in life.
3. The way to
eliminate suffering
is to stop the
cravings through
nirvana (a place of
happiness & peace)
2. Suffering is
caused by cravings
and a desire for
material things.
4. Enlightenment is the
result of understanding
life by following the
Eight-fold Path.
Buddhism
C. Buddhism has no god(s).
D. Buddhists worship in a Stupa or Pagoda.
E. Goal of Buddhists is nirvana (highest
state of enlightenment)
F. Buddhists believe one is continually
reborn until reaching nirvana (reincarnation).
G. Buddha did not record his teachings, but
after he died, his followers collected them into
the Tripitaka.
H. Today’s
Tibetan
Buddhists are
led by the Dalai
Lama, who
advocates for
freedom from
China.
Buddhism has much in common with
Hinduism, but there are important
differences.
Buddhism like
Hinduism:
Reincarnation
Karma
Dharma
But not alike:
Caste system
Hindu gods
Hindu
priesthood
Islam
A. Islam originated in
the Middle East
around 622 CE with
the Prophet,
Muhammad.
B. Muhammad was
born in Mecca and
traveled to Medina in
a journey called the
hijra, that became the
founding of Islam.
C. Muslim
worshippers
follow scriptures
called the Quran,
or Koran.
D. The collection of
Islamic laws is
also known as the
Sharia.
Five Pillars of Islam
1. Faith in one God, Allah—monotheism
2. Five times daily prayer toward Mecca
3. Give to the poor
4. Fasting during the holy month of
Ramadan
5. Pilgrimage to holy city of Mecca
Spread of Islam--In the 150 years following the
death of Muhammad, Islam spread through trade,
missionaries and conquest into Asia and Africa.
Questions:
1. Which two belief systems originated
in India?
2. Which religion gave rise to the caste
system?
3. How do religions spread?
4. What are the Five Pillars of Islam?
5. How are Hinduism and Buddhism
alike and different?
Confucius
Video on Confucianism
A. Confucius is China’s best known
philosopher.
B. He was born in about 551 B.C.
C. The disorder and suffering caused by
constant warfare disturbed Confucius.
D. He developed ideas about how to restore
peace and ensure harmony.
Confucius Traveled
E. Confucius visited the courts of various
princes, hoping to convince them to put his
ideas into practice.
F. Disappointed by the princes refusals, he
returned home, where he taught a small but
loyal group of followers.
G. After his death, his followers collected
his teachings in the Analects.
Confucius’s Five Relationships
• To restore order, Confucius taught that
five relationships must govern human
society. They are:
1.) the relationship between ruler & ruled
2.) the relationship between father & son
3.) the relationship between older brother &
younger brother
4.) the relationship between husband & wife
5.) the relationship between friend & friend
H. In all but the last relationship (friend &
I.
J.
friend), one person has authority over
another.
Confucius created a guide to proper
behavior based on ethical, or moral,
principles.
In his teachings, he placed the
family and the good of society
above the interests of the
individual.
Shintoism
Shintoism Video
Shintoism
A. Shintoism has no founder or one specific
god.
B. Shintoism is a Japanese ethnic religion
and way of life.
C. There are no strict requirements to
follow Shintoism.
D. Shintos believe human beings are good
with no sin.
Shintoism
E.
Kami (spirits) are central to
Shintos. The spirits want humans
to be happy. To make the kamis
happy, Shintos visit shrines,
especially on New Year’s, to bring
success to the year.
Shintoism
F. Shintos may have small shrines or
alters in the home to seek kami for
health, success and good results.
G. Shintos worship their ancestors
who they believe became kami.
Shintos want to keep the kami
happy!
Pop Quiz on Shintoism
True or False:
Shintoism is based on the belief that
everything in nature contains kami.
True
Shintoism
True or False
Shintos base their belief system on sacred
writings.
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