Which religion gave rise to the caste system?
Belief Systems Hinduism Click on picture for video A. Hinduism has no single founder, but originated from the mixing of Harappan and Aryan cultures in ancient India around 1500 BCE. B. Hindus believe in one unifying spirit, Brahman. Brahman can manifest in many, polytheistic, forms or in one, monotheistic. C. Hinduism is based on the concept of reincarnation (Spirits return to earth many times in different forms trying to become one with Brahman). The soul moves up or down a depending on their behavior in life. D. A person moves closer to Brahman by obeying the law of karma. E. Karma is the sum of all your deeds, good and bad. Good deeds involve following your dharma, or duties dependent on your position, gender and occupation. F. The caste system (outlawed since 1948) was an important part of Hinduism. Castes are social classes into which a person is born and lives their entire life. If a person has a good karma they may be reincarnated into a higher caste. This life Next life Good Karma Higher caste Bad Karma Lower caste Born into A caste G. Over the centuries Hindu beliefs were recorded into a number of sacred texts including the Vedas and the Upanishads. The Ramayana is a Hindu creation story. Caste System 3 Practices of Hinduism 1. The system means there is a division in society. 2. This system is dependent upon someone ‘s occupation (job). 3. The four levels in the cast system are priests, soldiers, merchants, laborers. (see next slide) • 1. Worship .2. Cremation 3. Compliance with the rules of the Caste The caste system separated Indian society into distinct social classes in which everyone knew their place and believed that if they followed the dharma of their caste, they would be reincarnated into a better caste. Brahmin (priests) Kshatriya (soldiers) Vaisya (merchants) Sudra (laborers) Untouchables (lowest, most despicable level) The social Classes in the Caste System Hindus often pilgrimage to sacred rivers, temples and mountains in India because they believe that gods have appeared in these places. Ganges River Koneswaram Temple, Sri Lanka Amarnath Cave Pilgrimage Buddhism Video on Buddhism A. Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama in northern India around 560 BCE. B. Gautama was born into a wealthy Hindu family, but renounced his wealth to seek spiritual enlightenment (the “light-bulb” or a-ha moment when one understands life). Buddhism is based on the Four Noble Truths. 1.Suffering exists in life. 3. The way to eliminate suffering is to stop the cravings through nirvana (a place of happiness & peace) 2. Suffering is caused by cravings and a desire for material things. 4. Enlightenment is the result of understanding life by following the Eight-fold Path. Buddhism C. Buddhism has no god(s). D. Buddhists worship in a Stupa or Pagoda. E. Goal of Buddhists is nirvana (highest state of enlightenment) F. Buddhists believe one is continually reborn until reaching nirvana (reincarnation). G. Buddha did not record his teachings, but after he died, his followers collected them into the Tripitaka. H. Today’s Tibetan Buddhists are led by the Dalai Lama, who advocates for freedom from China. Buddhism has much in common with Hinduism, but there are important differences. Buddhism like Hinduism: Reincarnation Karma Dharma But not alike: Caste system Hindu gods Hindu priesthood Islam A. Islam originated in the Middle East around 622 CE with the Prophet, Muhammad. B. Muhammad was born in Mecca and traveled to Medina in a journey called the hijra, that became the founding of Islam. C. Muslim worshippers follow scriptures called the Quran, or Koran. D. The collection of Islamic laws is also known as the Sharia. Five Pillars of Islam 1. Faith in one God, Allah—monotheism 2. Five times daily prayer toward Mecca 3. Give to the poor 4. Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan 5. Pilgrimage to holy city of Mecca Spread of Islam--In the 150 years following the death of Muhammad, Islam spread through trade, missionaries and conquest into Asia and Africa. Questions: 1. Which two belief systems originated in India? 2. Which religion gave rise to the caste system? 3. How do religions spread? 4. What are the Five Pillars of Islam? 5. How are Hinduism and Buddhism alike and different? Confucius Video on Confucianism A. Confucius is China’s best known philosopher. B. He was born in about 551 B.C. C. The disorder and suffering caused by constant warfare disturbed Confucius. D. He developed ideas about how to restore peace and ensure harmony. Confucius Traveled E. Confucius visited the courts of various princes, hoping to convince them to put his ideas into practice. F. Disappointed by the princes refusals, he returned home, where he taught a small but loyal group of followers. G. After his death, his followers collected his teachings in the Analects. Confucius’s Five Relationships • To restore order, Confucius taught that five relationships must govern human society. They are: 1.) the relationship between ruler & ruled 2.) the relationship between father & son 3.) the relationship between older brother & younger brother 4.) the relationship between husband & wife 5.) the relationship between friend & friend H. In all but the last relationship (friend & I. J. friend), one person has authority over another. Confucius created a guide to proper behavior based on ethical, or moral, principles. In his teachings, he placed the family and the good of society above the interests of the individual. Shintoism Shintoism Video Shintoism A. Shintoism has no founder or one specific god. B. Shintoism is a Japanese ethnic religion and way of life. C. There are no strict requirements to follow Shintoism. D. Shintos believe human beings are good with no sin. Shintoism E. Kami (spirits) are central to Shintos. The spirits want humans to be happy. To make the kamis happy, Shintos visit shrines, especially on New Year’s, to bring success to the year. Shintoism F. Shintos may have small shrines or alters in the home to seek kami for health, success and good results. G. Shintos worship their ancestors who they believe became kami. Shintos want to keep the kami happy! Pop Quiz on Shintoism True or False: Shintoism is based on the belief that everything in nature contains kami. True Shintoism True or False Shintos base their belief system on sacred writings.