...

Open Access Publishing: Emerging Trends & Promoting Use

by user

on
0

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

Open Access Publishing: Emerging Trends & Promoting Use
Adapted from:
ACRL Scholarly Communications 101
Starting with the Basics
Lee C. Van Orsdel
Grand Valley State University
Judith S Cohn
UMDNJ
Scholarly Communication
“the formal and informal processes by
which the research and scholarship of
faculty, researchers and independent
scholars are created, evaluated, edited,
formatted, distributed, organized, made
accessible, archived, used, and
transformed.”
ARL Create Change Brochure
Traditional Publishing Model
 Formal system of communication
 Faculty: create & give research information to
publishers
 Publishers: manage peer-review, edit, print and
distribute the publications
 Libraries: acquire, organize, and provide access to
primary resources and new materials, and preserve
them for the future
ACRL Create Change Brochure
Scholarly Publishing in a
Nutshell
 Knowledge output is increasing
 Market is unsustainable economically
library budgets losing ground
publisher sales have flattened
publisher growth has slowed
 Disruption greatest in scientific disciplines
 Disruption has spread to monographs
 Global financial crisis threatens further disruption
Journals
24,000
peer reviewed journals
1,300,000
Peer reviewed articles per year
1,200
Scholarly publishers
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
Compared to Medical Periodicals Price Index
(MPPI)
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
CPI
MPPI
“Journal prices
went up 215% from
1986 to 2003, while
the consumer price
index rose 63%.”
Association of
Research Libraries
Big Sticker Journals
 Journal of Comparative Neurology -
$27,465 (JCR Impact Factor 3.7)
 Brain Research - $23,446 (JCR Impact
Factor 2.5)
BTW, the approx price of a
New Toyota Camry XLE
university presses
societies &
other nonprofits
commercial
publishers
Journal publisher size guide
Petite (5 or fewer)
Small (6-10)
Medium (11-25)
Large (26-50)
X-Large (51-100)
XX-Large (100+)
54%
11%
16%
8%
4%
7%
Scholarly publishing practice: academic journal publishers’ policies and
practices in online publishing, 3rd survey, ALPSP, 2008
Data from Outsell’s 2006 STM market report
STM sector
revenue in 2006
$ 5.8 billion
$ 10.3 billion
Data from Outsell’s 2006 STM market report
Dysfunction largely
based on
problematic
economic model
Normal Economy
Steel
Steelmakers
Cars
Consumers
Auto manufacturers
$
$
Gift Economy
Article
Publisher
Author
$
P&T
Grants
Reputation
Prestige
Journal
Library
$
Cost to Produce One Journal Article
Average journal
article
Average journal
article
My Facuty, PhD
My Facuty, PhD
XYZ Commercial
Publisher
ABC Not-forProfit Publisher
Amsterdam, London, New York
Roger Clarke, The cost profiles of alternative approaches to journal publishing, First Monday, 3 December 2007
Does Higher Price Buy Better Information ?
9% $
91%
dollars
62%
citations
38%
citations
Libraries challenge
pricing power
Subsidizing journal start-ups
Canceling journals
Cutting book purchases
Forming consortia
Fighting mergers
Publishers try to
sustain revenue flow
Tying print to online
Bundling journals
Requiring multi-yr contracts
Buying other publishers
Raising prices
Scholarly communications
reform includes efforts to
establish balanced,
sustainable economic
models
Open Access
Author
Article
Publisher
Journal
Article
•
•
•
•
Grant/Research Foundation funding
Subsidy: Author/Institution/Library pays
Subscription to non-research content
Advertising
Free to all
readers
Competitive economic models
• Open Journals System
• Scholarly Exchange
• Open Humanities Press
Books
125
University presses in US
15,802
University publications in 2007
University Presses hard hit
Rice University
Northeastern University
University of Georgia
University of Iowa
University of Washington
Texas Tech
Stanford University
University of Michigan
closed 1996*
closed 2005
downsized
downsized
downsized
downsized
restructured
restructured
* Reborn 2006 as all digital, all OA press
Rich Baraniuk, SPARC-ACRL Forum, January 24, 2009
Bad News Continues:
• Cambridge University Press cutting 160 jobs
• Harvard University Press cutting 7
• Oxford University Press cutting 60 in US
A crisis is a terrible
thing to waste
three things to think about
Can publishers be persuaded that
the system must change?
ICOLC & ARL Appeals to Publishers
Springer Hybrid OA/subscription model at UC
Elsevier’s visits to chancellors discounting IRs
Wiley increases on society journals
19 publishers (& counting) froze prices in 2010
Long-term solution may
include shifting of library
funds from collecting to
producing or subsidizing
scholarly content
Outsell, a market
intelligence service, says
“access-based models will
not last.” Content is no
longer king in the STM
information business.
Scholarly Journal Publishing: the Costs
Cost Element
Percent of costs
Refereeing (peer review)
22%
Editorial & typesetting
(not needed in e-only journals)
33%
Physical production & distribution
(not needed for e-only journals)
23%
Subscription Management
(not needed in author pays)
7%
Sales & Trust,
Marketing
13% Research Publishing,” 2004
From The Wellcome
“Costs and Business Models of Scientific
(not needed in author pays)
Why Should You Pay?
Why is open access
important?

Authors
access to the largest possible audience

Readers
access to the entire literature

Reuse of articles
download, copy, print, archive

Full-text searching and mining
beyond Boolean text searches
This work was created by Lee Van Orsdel for the ACRL
National Conference, Scholarly Communications 101
Workshop and last updated July 16, 2009.
It is licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionNoncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/
Fly UP