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Religion in China

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Religion in China
Religion in China
Buddhism, Daoism, Confucianism
• China’s three religions have been the bedrock of Chinese civilization.
Taoist thought was systemized by the sage Lao Zi over 2,500 years ago in
his book Dao De Jing (Tao Te Ching). The book expounds on the
mysterious Way of the universe, which he calls the Tao.
• Confucianism (philosophy) emphasizes a moral code for governance,
family, and individual conduct. The teachings of Confucius (551 B.C.–479
B.C.) were the guiding principles for nearly every Chinese dynasty beginning
with the Han. All who wished to become an official had to pass civil-service
examinations that comprehensively tested their grasp of the Confucian
classics and their moral code.
• In A.D. 67, Buddhism reached China from ancient India. Its focus on
personal salvation and meditation had a profound effect on Chinese culture,
lasting until today.
• Under the influence of these faiths and philosophies, Chinese culture has
spawned a rich and profound system of values. The concepts of “man and
nature must be in balance,” “respect the heavens to know one’s destiny,”
and the five cardinal virtues of benevolence, righteousness, propriety,
wisdom, and faithfulness are all products of these three religions’ teachings,
and traditional Chinese way of life was tied inextricably with these ideas.
number one
BUDDHISM
CRASH COURSE BUDDHISM (5’21”)
• Began 6th C BCE in India/Nepal
– Buddha: The enlightened one
– Born Siddhartha Gautana: Kshatriya Caste
– 4 passing sights
•
•
•
•
1:
2:
3:
4:
An old crippled man
A sick man
A dead man
A holy man with no home
• Developed the 4 Noble Truths to become Enlightened (Nirvana)
– Life is difficult
– All hardships and suffering from inappropriate attachment
– Avoid suffering from inappropriate cravings
– To do this, follow the 8 fold Noble path
• Different sects:
– Himalayans/Tibet:
• Vajrayana
– Southern Asia, especially in Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma):
• Theravada
– North Asia and the Far East, including China, Japan, Korea:
• Mahayana
The Great Buddha of
Kamakura- Japan
Flags of Tibet
Tibetan Flag
Tibetan Prayer Flags
Tibetan Buddhists for centuries have
planted these flags outside their homes and
places of spiritual practice for the wind to
carry the beneficent vibrations across the
countryside. Prayer flags are said to bring
happiness, long life and prosperity to the
flag planter and those in the vicinity.
Tibet: The roof of the world
TIBET’S GOVERNMENT: THEOCRACY
•
•
•
1933: 13th Dalai Lama dies
1935: Lhamo Dhondup born
1940: Lhamo Dhondup proclaimed 14th Dalai Lama, taken to Lhasa
– Dalai Lama: “Teacher of Ocean Wide Wisdom”
•
1950: Chinese troops “liberate Tibet from Feudalism”
TIBET NOW PART OF CHINA
•
1959: Tibetan uprising failed, 89,000 Tibetans killed. 14th Dalai Lama fled
– Exile Government led by the Dalai Lama (Head of State) in Dharamsala India
– 1.2 Million Tibetans died in total/ estimated $80 billion in holy items stolen
•
•
1960’s: Most Tibetan monasteries destroyed during Mao’s Cultural
Revolution
– Mao: “Religion is Poison”
Today: Tibet is an autonomous region
–
“Tibetan Autonomous Region”
Valley on the way to Tibet
7 Years in Tibet
Today: Opening up of
Tibet?
• Chinese rail link to Tibetan
town near India to be
completed in three years
• Tibet sees 11th company go
public
• Tourism
Shangri-La
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Regions and Territories:
Tibet
Tibet Timeline
Dalai Lama: “Tibetan People
Put Through Hell”
Q & A: China and Tibet
Tibet in Pictures
Free Tibet in Pictures
Tibet Riot Anniversary (1959)
Tibet Riots
China’s Reaction
DaZhao Monastery in Lhasa, the largest in Lhasa
•
Xinjiang as Tibet?
•
•
Uighurs are one of 55 nationally
designated minorities in China.
China's constitution officially
recognizes the Uighurs' right to
practice their own religion and to
speak and learn in their own
language. In practice, however,
the government maintains tight
control over Uighur culture. All
mosques are required to register
with the government. In 2001,
authorities called in 8,000 imams
for special training on the
Communist Party's ethnic and
religious policies. In 2002,
Xinjiang's top university
eliminated all instruction in the
Uighur language.
In 1949, when the communists first took
power, more than 90 percent of
Xinjiang's population was Uighur and
about 5 percent was Han, from China's
largest ethnic group. However,
government-sponsored migration has
dramatically changed the demographics
of the region. Today, 47 percent of
Xinjiang is Uighur and 41 percent is Han.
Smaller groups of other Turkic Muslims,
including Kyrgyz, Kazakhs, Tajiks and
Uzbeks, make up the remainder of the
population.
The Uighurs (alternately spelled Uyghur,
Uyguir, Uiguir and Weiwuer) have lived in
this region for centuries. Uighurs use a
Turkic dialect and write in an Arabicbased script. Mostly Sunni Muslims, the
Uighurs comprise more than a third of
China's estimated 18 million Muslims.
• China’s three religions have been the bedrock of Chinese civilization.
Taoist thought was systemized by the sage Lao Zi over 2,500 years ago in
his book Dao De Jing (Tao Te Ching). The book expounds on the
mysterious Way of the universe, which he calls the Tao.
• Confucianism (philosophy) emphasizes a moral code for governance,
family, and individual conduct. The teachings of Confucius (551 B.C.–479
B.C.) were the guiding principles for nearly every Chinese dynasty beginning
with the Han. All who wished to become an official had to pass civil-service
examinations that comprehensively tested their grasp of the Confucian
classics and their moral code.
• In A.D. 67, Buddhism reached China from ancient India. Its focus on
personal salvation and meditation had a profound effect on Chinese culture,
lasting until today.
• Under the influence of these faiths and philosophies, Chinese culture has
spawned a rich and profound system of values. The concepts of “man and
nature must be in balance,” “respect the heavens to know one’s destiny,”
and the five cardinal virtues of benevolence, righteousness, propriety,
wisdom, and faithfulness are all products of these three religions’ teachings,
and traditional Chinese way of life was tied inextricably with these ideas.
number two
DAOISM
• Literally, "way" or "path;" the rhythmic balance
and natural, flowing patterns of the universe.
The enlightened human being is one who
always acts in accordance with the Dao
• Finding solace and harmony in nature
• Sage Lao Zi over 2,500 years ago wrote Dao De
Jing (Tao Te Ching).
– The book expounds on the mysterious Way of
the universe, which he calls the Tao.
Tai Chi
There exists a long history of movement
and exercise systems which are
associated with Taoism. In some sense
one can see elements of all of these as
contributing to the climate from which
Tai Chi emerged.
• China’s three religions have been the bedrock of Chinese civilization.
Taoist thought was systemized by the sage Lao Zi over 2,500 years ago in
his book Dao De Jing (Tao Te Ching). The book expounds on the
mysterious Way of the universe, which he calls the Tao.
• Confucianism (philosophy) emphasizes a moral code for governance,
family, and individual conduct. The teachings of Confucius (551 B.C.–479
B.C.) were the guiding principles for nearly every Chinese dynasty beginning
with the Han. All who wished to become an official had to pass civil-service
examinations that comprehensively tested their grasp of the Confucian
classics and their moral code.
• In A.D. 67, Buddhism reached China from ancient India. Its focus on
personal salvation and meditation had a profound effect on Chinese culture,
lasting until today.
• Under the influence of these faiths and philosophies, Chinese culture has
spawned a rich and profound system of values. The concepts of “man and
nature must be in balance,” “respect the heavens to know one’s destiny,”
and the five cardinal virtues of benevolence, righteousness, propriety,
wisdom, and faithfulness are all products of these three religions’ teachings,
and traditional Chinese way of life was tied inextricably with these ideas.
Number 3
CONFUCIANISM
Confucianism or “Literati Tradition”
• Founded by Confucius KUNG FU TZU (b. 551 BCE, d. 479 BCE)
– Contemporary of Buddha and lived before Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.
• Confucianism is NOT A RELIGION!
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–
–
–
A Moral philosophy based around character building
SECULAR ETHICS & SOCIAL CONDUCT!
For the educated elite
Confucius is NOT a deity!
• Is a code of conduct to help the individual contribute to society
through self mastery and personal responsibility.
• The LUNG-YU, or analects, is the most sacred writings
Today: Confucius and TV; weddings; Do your homework!
2000 of Chinese History- Confucius
6 Major Beliefs
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•
•
•
•
•
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
Li:
Hsiao:
Yi:
Xin:
Jen:
Chung:
Confucius Quotes:
• Before you embark on a journey of revenge, dig two
graves.
• Ignorance is the night of the mind, but a night without
moon and star.
• When anger rises, think of the consequences.
• Have no friends not equal to yourself.
• He who learns but does not think, is lost. He who
thinks but does not learn is in great danger.
• Silence is a friend who will never betray.
Asia One
CHINA SHOULDN'T FEEL
THREATENED BY DIVERSITY
Mandala is a Sanskrit word. It is a spiritual
symbol in Hinduism and Buddhism
representing the Universe.
Mandalas
In many spiritual traditions, mandalas are
used for focusing attention of the
practitioner as a spiritual guidance tool, for
establishing a sacred space and as an aid
for meditation
“Tibetans see the mandala as a sacred
object. After spending many hours of
intricate labor, the monks destroy the
mandala when it is finished, dramatizing
the impermanence of our lives. They
will then distribute small amounts of the
consecrated sand to those who are
present. They will pour the remaining
sand into the stream that runs through
Wilson Park so that its healing power
will spread throughout our community
and beyond…”
A mandala is thought to bring peace and
harmony to the area where it is being
constructed.
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•
•
Creating your Mandala
Gather your materials and go to a quiet, private space. Light a candle or burn incense to
establish a reflective mood. You may find it helpful to sit quietly for a few moments of
prayer or meditation before beginning your mandala. This helps focus your attention on
messages from the unconscious. Perhaps an image, a color, or even a movement will
come to you as the beginning point for your mandala.
Next draw a circle freehand, with a compass, or traced around a plate or other template.
Then fill in the circle with color and form. Allow your mandala to unfold with as little
thought as possible. Let go of all your notions about how a mandala should look. There are
no "right" or "wrong" mandalas.
When you have completed your mandala, write the day’s date on it, then put it somewhere
in your living space where you can walk by and see it often. Let it be part of your life for a
few days. Be open to receive any messages it has for you.
The construction of the mandala takes several
days and then through a process of ritual is
destroyed shortly after it is created. This is done
as a teaching tool and a metaphor for the
“impermanence” of life.
Mandala
• Psychologically mandalas represent the
totality of our being or Self. Carl G. Jung,
who was responsible for bringing the
mandala to the western world, believed
that they are our “eternal mind’s eternal
recreation,” the path to our center, the
voice of our unconscious, and the mirror of
our becoming whole.
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