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3 AP Classical India

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3 AP Classical India
Classical India
321 BCE – 185 CE
Mauryan
&
Gupta Dynasties
K.M.H.S.
AP World History
Mrs. Farbacher
Khyber
Pass
Geographic Barriers
Essential Questions
 What geographical features would favor the
acquisition of wealth and power in India?
How?
 Why was India consistently vulnerable to
invasion despite location? [C & C]
 How did the invasions of Darius of Persia and
Alexander the Great influence the unification
of India?
 Compare and contrast political tendencies in
India and China. [C/C]
People-Concepts-Terms
 Chandragupta
Maurya
 Ashoka
 Chandra Gupta
 Arthashastra
 Caste System
 Mahabarata
 Bhagavad Gita
 Ramayana
 Indian Ocean
Trade
Mauryan Dynasty
Invasions Influence Unification
 Darius of Persia
 Invaded
N. India
 Creates a
province of
Achaemenid
Empire
 Introduced Persian
administrative policy
 Alexander the Great
 Made
no lasting
impression
 By defeating
Persians & crushing
existing states
 He created a
political power
vacuum
Unification [320 BCE]
 Chandragupta
Maurya
 Replaced
Magadha
 Unifier

Arthashastra
 Book
of
governance
 Utilized spies
 Implemented
policies of
standardization
 Oversaw trade and
agriculture
 Built an effective
bureaucracy
Chandragupta Maurya
Mauryan Golden Age
268-232 BCE
 Ashoka [Chandragupta’s grandson]
 Conquered
most of subcontinent
 Tightly controlled bureaucracy
 Centralized
treasury & tax collection
 Converted to Buddhism
 Published

edicts throughout
Note example column
 Empire disappeared after his death
Ashoka
Symbol Of Ashoka
 Four Lion Column
 Symbol for modern
 Republic
Of India
 [Worlds largest
democracy]
Gupta Dynasty
Statuary is
Very lifelike,
Voluptuous, &
Portrays movement
[Compare to Egypt]
Kushan & Gupta Dynasties
 Kushan
 Bactria
 Modern
Afghanistan
 Heirs to Alexander
 Held trade routes
 Chandra Gupta
 Smaller than
Mauryan
 Temporarily re-
unified
 Reverted back to
regional kingdoms

Until 1500s
Economic System
 Production:
 Highly productive
agriculture
 Manufacturing
 Large scale
businesses
 Distribution
 Large entrepreneur
/merchant class
 Iron tools
 Textiles [cotton]
 Pottery
 Luxury items
 Diamonds
 Rubies
 Gold
Indian Ocean Trade
Trade Goods & Routes
Long Distance Trade
 Location and Persian Roads
 Silk Roads & Indian Ocean trade routes
 Indian merchants into S.E. Asia
 Trade Goods:
Pearls
Cotton
Black pepper
Spices
Exotic produce
Gems
Traditions & Gender Roles
 Patriarchal
Nuclear families
 Child marriage
 Young girls engaged
 Men in their 20s
 Married at puberty
 Kept women under
the power of men
 Long tradition
 [continuity]
 Indian Epics
 Support

patriarchy
 Proscribe the role
of women
Mahabharata
 Bhagavad Gita
 Ramayana
 Sita’s role when
Rama was exiled.

Mahabharata
Bhagavad Gita
Ramayana
Ganesha
Lord of Success
Indian Art & Architecture
Colorful with much
symbolism
Vishnu
Lakshimi
Durga
Shiva
Saraswati
Ganesha
Caste System
 Introduced by Aryans
 Purpose to maintain an orderly society
 Castes:
 Brahmins
 Priests
 Kshatriyas
 Warriors
& aristocracy
 Vaishyas
 Peasants
 Shudras
 Serfs
& merchants
Caste System
Legacies of Classical India
 MATHEMATICS
 “Arabic
numerals”
 Concept zero
 Decimal system
 ASTRONOMY
 Predict
eclipses
 Identify planets
 MEDICINE
 Inoculation
against small pox
 Sterilization =
medical
procedures
 Plastic surgery
 Setting bones
Enduring Questions
 Be prepared to examine and evaluate
all of India’s legacies.
 Be prepared to compare India – China –
Roman political systems, economic
systems, cultural tendencies.
Classical India
Salvation Religions
Hinduism -Jainism
Buddhism
Salvation Religions of India
 Hinduism
 Jainism
 Buddhism
Hinduism Religion of Vedic Age
 Aryan gods
[polytheism]
 War god INDRA

Multiple gods of sun,
etc.
 Ethical
god
Varuna
 Ritual Sacrifices:


Priests > specialists
Power & favor >
outcomes
 Spirituality
 Dissatisfaction with
ritual
 Shift to spiritual
contemplation
 Retreat to isolation
[hermits]
 Adapted Dravidian:
 Transmigration

Reincarnation
Blending Aryan/Dravidian
 UPANISHADS c. 800 BCE
 Religious
teachings
 800-400 B.C.E.
 Religious forums/dialogues
 BRAHMAN
 “Universal Soul”
 Highest goal > Moksha
 Escape reincarnation
 Join with Brahman
Blending Aryan/Dravidian
 UPANISHAD TEACHINGS:
SAMSARA
– Process of incarnation & reincarnation
 KARMA
– Specific incarnations [actions invest in
future incarnations]
 MOKSHA
– Permanent liberation from physical
incarnation
 Religion & Vedic Society
 Reinforced social hierarchy
 Promoted high ethical standards
 Respect for all living things = AHIMSA
 Vegetarian diet

Reincarnation
Basic Tenets
of Hinduism
 Source: Rig Vedas
 Upanishad




discourses
Creative force:
 Hindu Trinity
 Brahma
 Vishnu / Shiva
Ahimsa
Reincarnation
Moksha
 Dharma
Doctrine [ethics &
duties]
 Samsara
 Cycle of incarnation /
reincarnation
 Karma
 Current incarnation


Actions wherein
invest in future
 Moksha

Release from cycle of
incarnation /
reincarnation
Hinduism
[c. 800 BCE]
“Do naught to others which if done to thee
would cause thee pain."
 (From the Mahabharata 5.1517)
 Not a missionary religion
 Gains popularity because the way to
achieve moksha is not as difficult as in
Buddhism
 Recognizes the caste system.
Jainism
[7th Century BCE]
“In happiness and suffering, in joy and grief, we should
regard all creatures as we regard our own self.”
(Lord Mahavir 24th Tirthankara)
• Founder
• Vardhamana Mahavira
• Very strict adherence to ahimsa
• Strict nonviolence toward all
living things
• Promotes asceticism
• Jains are strict vegetarians
• Does not recognize the caste system
Buddhism
“Hurt
not others with that which pains
yourself.“

From the Udanavarga 5.18
Buddhism
[528 BCE]
 Siddhartha Gautama [asceticism]
Becomes Buddha after death
 Buddha > “The Enlightened One”

 Nirvana
 Salvation [release from cycle of
reincarnation]
 AHIMSA
 Missionary
 Does not recognize the caste system
 Appealing to women and lower castes.
Tenets of Buddhism
 FOUR NOBLE




TRUTHS:
All life is suffering
Desire is the cause
of suffering
Elimination of desire
brings an end to
suffering
Follow the Noble
Eightfold Path
 Dharma> doctrine
 Noble Eightfold Path
 Right belief
 Right resolve
 Right speech
 Right behavior
 Right occupation
 Right effort
 Right contemplation
 Right meditation
Religions of Asia
Major Sects of Buddhism
www.buddha101.com/h_maps.htm
Theravada Buddhism
“The Lesser Vehicle”
 Practiced in India
 Parts
of Southeast Asia
 Strict asceticism
 Difficult for ordinary people to
achieve nirvana
Mahayana Buddhism
“The Greater Vehicle”
 Practiced in China
 Mahayana Buddhism
 Monks
explained in Daoist vernacular
 = DHARMA = DAO & NIRVANA
WUWEI
 Appealing
morality
 Monasteries helped poor
Chan / Zen Buddhism
 Adapted from Mahayana
 Chan
in Korea
 Zen in Japan
 Unlike Theravada, easier for
ordinary people to achieve nirvana.
 Very popular because monks used
vernacular to spread teachings.
Zen & Chan
Locations
Animism
Christianity
Islam
Judaism
Hinduism
Buddhism
Religion Terms

Analects
 Animism
 Brahman

Bodhisattvas
 Covenant
 Diaspora
 Disciple
 Edict of Milan
 New Testament
 Ten
Commandments
 Messiah
 Dharma
 Karma
 Moksha
 Ahimsa
 Nirvana
 Reincarnation
 Theocracy
 All
terms related
to Islam
 Torah
 Yahweh
 Yin & Yang
 Filial Piety
Enduring Questions
 Be prepared to compare all components
of major world religions and evaluate
similarities and differences.
 Include founder, scripture, tenets,
purpose, auxiliary components,
important concepts.
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