3 AP Classical India
Classical India 321 BCE – 185 CE Mauryan & Gupta Dynasties K.M.H.S. AP World History Mrs. Farbacher Khyber Pass Geographic Barriers Essential Questions What geographical features would favor the acquisition of wealth and power in India? How? Why was India consistently vulnerable to invasion despite location? [C & C] How did the invasions of Darius of Persia and Alexander the Great influence the unification of India? Compare and contrast political tendencies in India and China. [C/C] People-Concepts-Terms Chandragupta Maurya Ashoka Chandra Gupta Arthashastra Caste System Mahabarata Bhagavad Gita Ramayana Indian Ocean Trade Mauryan Dynasty Invasions Influence Unification Darius of Persia Invaded N. India Creates a province of Achaemenid Empire Introduced Persian administrative policy Alexander the Great Made no lasting impression By defeating Persians & crushing existing states He created a political power vacuum Unification [320 BCE] Chandragupta Maurya Replaced Magadha Unifier Arthashastra Book of governance Utilized spies Implemented policies of standardization Oversaw trade and agriculture Built an effective bureaucracy Chandragupta Maurya Mauryan Golden Age 268-232 BCE Ashoka [Chandragupta’s grandson] Conquered most of subcontinent Tightly controlled bureaucracy Centralized treasury & tax collection Converted to Buddhism Published edicts throughout Note example column Empire disappeared after his death Ashoka Symbol Of Ashoka Four Lion Column Symbol for modern Republic Of India [Worlds largest democracy] Gupta Dynasty Statuary is Very lifelike, Voluptuous, & Portrays movement [Compare to Egypt] Kushan & Gupta Dynasties Kushan Bactria Modern Afghanistan Heirs to Alexander Held trade routes Chandra Gupta Smaller than Mauryan Temporarily re- unified Reverted back to regional kingdoms Until 1500s Economic System Production: Highly productive agriculture Manufacturing Large scale businesses Distribution Large entrepreneur /merchant class Iron tools Textiles [cotton] Pottery Luxury items Diamonds Rubies Gold Indian Ocean Trade Trade Goods & Routes Long Distance Trade Location and Persian Roads Silk Roads & Indian Ocean trade routes Indian merchants into S.E. Asia Trade Goods: Pearls Cotton Black pepper Spices Exotic produce Gems Traditions & Gender Roles Patriarchal Nuclear families Child marriage Young girls engaged Men in their 20s Married at puberty Kept women under the power of men Long tradition [continuity] Indian Epics Support patriarchy Proscribe the role of women Mahabharata Bhagavad Gita Ramayana Sita’s role when Rama was exiled. Mahabharata Bhagavad Gita Ramayana Ganesha Lord of Success Indian Art & Architecture Colorful with much symbolism Vishnu Lakshimi Durga Shiva Saraswati Ganesha Caste System Introduced by Aryans Purpose to maintain an orderly society Castes: Brahmins Priests Kshatriyas Warriors & aristocracy Vaishyas Peasants Shudras Serfs & merchants Caste System Legacies of Classical India MATHEMATICS “Arabic numerals” Concept zero Decimal system ASTRONOMY Predict eclipses Identify planets MEDICINE Inoculation against small pox Sterilization = medical procedures Plastic surgery Setting bones Enduring Questions Be prepared to examine and evaluate all of India’s legacies. Be prepared to compare India – China – Roman political systems, economic systems, cultural tendencies. Classical India Salvation Religions Hinduism -Jainism Buddhism Salvation Religions of India Hinduism Jainism Buddhism Hinduism Religion of Vedic Age Aryan gods [polytheism] War god INDRA Multiple gods of sun, etc. Ethical god Varuna Ritual Sacrifices: Priests > specialists Power & favor > outcomes Spirituality Dissatisfaction with ritual Shift to spiritual contemplation Retreat to isolation [hermits] Adapted Dravidian: Transmigration Reincarnation Blending Aryan/Dravidian UPANISHADS c. 800 BCE Religious teachings 800-400 B.C.E. Religious forums/dialogues BRAHMAN “Universal Soul” Highest goal > Moksha Escape reincarnation Join with Brahman Blending Aryan/Dravidian UPANISHAD TEACHINGS: SAMSARA – Process of incarnation & reincarnation KARMA – Specific incarnations [actions invest in future incarnations] MOKSHA – Permanent liberation from physical incarnation Religion & Vedic Society Reinforced social hierarchy Promoted high ethical standards Respect for all living things = AHIMSA Vegetarian diet Reincarnation Basic Tenets of Hinduism Source: Rig Vedas Upanishad discourses Creative force: Hindu Trinity Brahma Vishnu / Shiva Ahimsa Reincarnation Moksha Dharma Doctrine [ethics & duties] Samsara Cycle of incarnation / reincarnation Karma Current incarnation Actions wherein invest in future Moksha Release from cycle of incarnation / reincarnation Hinduism [c. 800 BCE] “Do naught to others which if done to thee would cause thee pain." (From the Mahabharata 5.1517) Not a missionary religion Gains popularity because the way to achieve moksha is not as difficult as in Buddhism Recognizes the caste system. Jainism [7th Century BCE] “In happiness and suffering, in joy and grief, we should regard all creatures as we regard our own self.” (Lord Mahavir 24th Tirthankara) • Founder • Vardhamana Mahavira • Very strict adherence to ahimsa • Strict nonviolence toward all living things • Promotes asceticism • Jains are strict vegetarians • Does not recognize the caste system Buddhism “Hurt not others with that which pains yourself.“ From the Udanavarga 5.18 Buddhism [528 BCE] Siddhartha Gautama [asceticism] Becomes Buddha after death Buddha > “The Enlightened One” Nirvana Salvation [release from cycle of reincarnation] AHIMSA Missionary Does not recognize the caste system Appealing to women and lower castes. Tenets of Buddhism FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS: All life is suffering Desire is the cause of suffering Elimination of desire brings an end to suffering Follow the Noble Eightfold Path Dharma> doctrine Noble Eightfold Path Right belief Right resolve Right speech Right behavior Right occupation Right effort Right contemplation Right meditation Religions of Asia Major Sects of Buddhism www.buddha101.com/h_maps.htm Theravada Buddhism “The Lesser Vehicle” Practiced in India Parts of Southeast Asia Strict asceticism Difficult for ordinary people to achieve nirvana Mahayana Buddhism “The Greater Vehicle” Practiced in China Mahayana Buddhism Monks explained in Daoist vernacular = DHARMA = DAO & NIRVANA WUWEI Appealing morality Monasteries helped poor Chan / Zen Buddhism Adapted from Mahayana Chan in Korea Zen in Japan Unlike Theravada, easier for ordinary people to achieve nirvana. Very popular because monks used vernacular to spread teachings. Zen & Chan Locations Animism Christianity Islam Judaism Hinduism Buddhism Religion Terms Analects Animism Brahman Bodhisattvas Covenant Diaspora Disciple Edict of Milan New Testament Ten Commandments Messiah Dharma Karma Moksha Ahimsa Nirvana Reincarnation Theocracy All terms related to Islam Torah Yahweh Yin & Yang Filial Piety Enduring Questions Be prepared to compare all components of major world religions and evaluate similarities and differences. Include founder, scripture, tenets, purpose, auxiliary components, important concepts.