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The Fate of Antimatter

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The Fate of Antimatter
Mitglied der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft
JARA|FAME Inauguration
The Fate of Antimatter
January 17, 2013 | Hans Ströher
Matter and Antimatter
Annihilation
8. April 2016
Institut für Kernphysik (IKP)
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Matter and Antimatter
Cosmic Microwave
Background
Radiation
No indications
for massive
annihilation
radiation
Time after Big Bang
Now
No antimatter (!?)
8. April 2016
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Paul A.M. Dirac
8. April 2016
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Paul A.M. Dirac
+
Inventor of Antimatter
8. April 2016
Institut für Kernphysik (IKP)
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Paul A.M. Dirac
…, we must regard it rather
as an accident that the Earth
(and presumably the whole
solar system), contains a
preponderance of negative
electrons and positive protons.
Matter
8. April 2016
Institut für Kernphysik (IKP)
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Paul A.M. Dirac
It is quite possible that for
some of the stars it is the
other way about, these stars
being built up mainly of
positrons and negative
protons.
Anti-Matter
8. April 2016
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Search for Anti-matter
From: NASA.gov
8. April 2016
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Paul A.M. Dirac
If we accept the view of
complete symmetry between
positive and negative electric
charge as far as concerns the
fundamental laws of Nature, ...
(A)Symmetry ?
8. April 2016
Institut für Kernphysik (IKP)
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Search for an Asymmetry
Symmetric Big Bang
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Search for an Asymmetry
Asymmetric Universe
8. April 2016
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Search
for it !
AMS
8. April 2016
Where
is the
antimatter
?
Quantitative
theoretical
connection
Institut für Kernphysik (IKP)
It´s gone
– why ?
EDM
Folie 12
Search
for it !
AMS
8. April 2016
Where
is the
antimatter
?
Detectors
Electronics
Data Handling
Institut für Kernphysik (IKP)
It´s gone
– why ?
EDM
Folie 13
Symmetry
– Snowflakes –
Symmetrical objects
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Why Symmetry Matters
Fundamental symmetry principles …
- dictate the basic laws of physics,
- control the structure of matter, and
- define the fundamental forces in Nature.
(Leon Lederman)
Mirror Reflection + Inversion
Theorem
Symmetries (except CPT) are not perfect
Discrete symmetries
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Institut für Kernphysik (IKP)
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Why Symmetry Matters
Fundamental symmetry principles …
- dictate the basic
p- laws
p+ of physics,
„Particles“
„Anti-particles“
- control the structure of matter, and
- define the fundamental
forces in Nature.
ee+
KL
KL
(Leon Lederman)
The fundamental theories
ne
neof physics are
based on symmetry considerations, yet:
our world is filled with asymmetry.
(Tsung-Dao
Lee)
One
decay
happens more frequently
 CP-symmetry is broken
Different behaviour
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Why Symmetry Matters
Matter
Anti-Matter
Standard Model CP violation too small !
New CPV ? - EDM
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Electric Dipole Moment
+
Spin
Spin
„Round“:
No EDM
+
-
T
EDM
Spin
EDM
Different
states
EDM violates T (CP)
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Institut für Kernphysik (IKP)
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Electric Dipole Moment
+
Neutron
1022 fm
1 fm
<10 m
-
1950´s: EDMs small
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Electric Dipole Moment
„10m“
Neutron
Adapted from:
Nature,
Vol 482 (2012)
EDMs must exist
No EDM yet, only limits
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Electric Dipole Moment
+
1022 fm
1 fm
<10 µm
-
EDM: precision frontier
8. April 2016
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How EDMs are Measured
B E
B
E
µ d+ 2dE
hf+ = 2µB
hf- = 2µB - 2dE
Precession frequency
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How EDMs are Measured
Spin
„Freeze“
horizontal spin
of polarized
charged particle beam
in storage ring
along the
momentum, …
Momentum
Polarization vector
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How EDMs are Measured
„Freeze“
horizontal spin
of polarized
charged particle beam
in storage ring
along the
momentum, …
Polarization vector
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How EDMs are Measured
… apply a radial electric field (E) …
Goal:
10-29 e cm
„nm separation“
… and watch for development of vertical polarization  EDM
Polarization vector
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Storage Ring EDM Project
COSY: from tests …
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Storage Ring EDM Project
COSY: precursor expt.
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Storage Ring EDM Project
Options:
All-electric ring (proton, electron): only E-field
All-in-one ring (proton, deuteron, 3He): E- and B-fields
Requirements:
Clockwise
and
counterclockwise
beams
… to a precision SR
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Storage Ring EDM Project
Options:
All-electric ring (proton, electron): only E-field
All-in-one ring (proton, deuteron, 3He): E- and B-fields
Challenges:
Huge E-fields
Shielding B-fields
Spin coherence
Beam position
Polarimetry
(...)
… to a precision SR
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Storage Ring EDM Project
Options:
All-electric ring (proton, electron): only E-field
All-in-one ring (proton, deuteron, 3He): E- and B-fields
JEDI
Jülich Electric Dipole Moment Investigations
JEDI-Collaboration
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Storage Ring EDM Project
EDM Sensitivity
10-29 e cm
Dedicated SR
10-24 e cm
Precursor expt. w/ COSY
First direct
measurements
for p, d
R&D, test measurements at COSY
Time
Now
JEDI: staged approach
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Storage Ring EDM Project
pEDM
dEDM
Possibility
of a
discovery
Highest sensitivity
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JARA|FAME
EDM
T
CPV
Search for charged-particle EDMs in storage rings
Unprecedented sensitivity (<10-29 e cm)
Reason for baryon-asymmetric Universe
Physics beyond the Standard Model
Exceptional technological challenge
Fate of antimatter
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JARA|FAME
EDM
T
CPV
Search for charged-particle EDMs in storage rings
Unprecedented sensitivity (<10-29 e cm)
Reason for baryon-asymmetric Universe
Physics beyond the Standard Model
Exceptional technological challenge
A must-do and can-do !
8. April 2016
Institut für Kernphysik (IKP)
Folie 34
JARA|FAME
EDM
T
CPV
Search for charged-particle EDMs in storage rings
Unprecedented sensitivity (<10-29 e cm)
Reason for baryon-asymmetric Universe
Physics beyond the Standard Model
Exceptional technological challenge
A must-do and can-do !
8. April 2016
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8. April 2016
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SPARES
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CMB Radiation
“PLANCK” (ESA, 2009)
The main feature of this image
is our own Galaxy, as a white
line across the middle.
Planck's main objective is to
map the CMB ratiation, which
was emitted in the early Universe.
This can be seen in regions
where the Galaxyis not emitting
strongly, as red and yellow
mottled appearance at the top
and bottom of the image.
The CMB is actually present over
the whole sky, but is swamped by
the light from our own Galaxy.
8. April 2016
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Search for Anti-matter
INTEGRAL mapped the glow
of 511 keV gamma rays from
electron-positron annihilation.
The map shows the whole
sky, with the galactic center
in the middle. The emission
extends to the right.
This INTEGRAL image shows
the distribution of hard low-mass
X-ray binaries. This stellar
population has a distribution
that matches the extent of the
511 keV map.
8. April 2016
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Search for Anti-matter
FERMI Gamma-Ray Space
Telescope (formerly GLAST):
g-ray pulsars
Cycle of pulsed gamma rays
from the Vela pulsar
8. April 2016
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Baryon Asymmetric Universe
The predicted abundance of
deuterium, helium and lithium
depends on the density of
ordinary matter in the early
Universe.
The WMAP satellite is able to
directly measure the ordinary
matter density:
i.e., or every baryon, there
are 2 x 109 photons …, but
we see no antibaryons:
Time since Big Bang (yr)
From: NASA.gov
8. April 2016
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Baryogenesis
Three conditions (Sakharov):
 Baryon number violation
B=0 B=0
 C- and CP-violation
every asymmetry will be
compensated
 Non-thermal equilibrium
no change in equilibrium
Can be formally proven by
quantum mechanics and
statistical physics.
SM baryogenesis extremely
unlikely (smallness of CPV,
current Higgs-mass)
From: NASA.gov
8. April 2016
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Production of Anti-matter
1995:
First observation
of anti-hydrogen
(9 atoms)
W. Oelert et al.
8. April 2016
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Production of Anti-matter
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Symmetry
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Discrete Symmetries
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Symmetry Breaking
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Symmetry Breaking
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