KitMath REVISED 2 14
= = 1 Sara Jane Strecker, FACS Educator ©2002 Learning Zone Express KITCHEN MATH Intro to Culinary Standard: HOSP-ICA-5 Name and describe various fixed equipment and small wares associated with the commercial kitchen and bake shop. 2 ©2002 Learning Zone Express How are ingredients categorized? Baking basics – categorize as either liquid or dry ingredients. 3 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Dry Ingredients are measured in standardized nested measuring cups Basic tools for measuring dry ingredients: Nested measuring cups – 4 in a set Cups measure by volume • 16 Tablespoons = 1 Cup 4 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Measuring Dry Ingredients Measuring flour: • Do not pack the flour into the measuring cup or spoon because you will end up with more flour. Instead, SCOOP flour into the cup and LEVEL with a spatula or knife. Measuring brown sugar: • PACK the brown sugar tightly into the measuring cup or spoon. Once it is packed down, level it with a straight edge or knife. Measuring granulated sugar: • Fill the cup with sugar. Level with the back of a spatula or knife so that sugar is even with top of measuring cup or spoon. 5 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Other items that could be measured in a nested cup Nuts – example, 1 cup chopped walnuts Vegetables – example, 1 cup chopped celery or ½ cup finely chopped onion Fruit – 1 cup diced apple or 1 cup dried cranberries 6 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Measuring Large Quantities Professional recipes may use large amounts of ingredients • Example: 175 biscuits may us 6 pounds of flour For accuracy and time management, professionals weigh ingredients • Portion Scale • Electronic Scale • Balance Scale 7 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Portion Scale Spring scale used to determine the weight of an ingredient or portion of food 8 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Electronic Scale Electronic, or digital. Readout is very accurate 9 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Balance Scale Used to measure most baking ingredients Product on one side and weights on the other. 10 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Portion Scoops Scoops are often used in the professional kitchen Scoops are color coded for portions Example, purple scoop is .88 ounce or slightly less than 2 Tablespoons They may be called dishers Scoop doughs or food product such as mashed potatoes 11 Liquid Ingredients Measure in clear measuring vessels designed for liquid. Volume measurement 12 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Measuring liquids Liquids such as milk, oil and water are measured in liquid measuring cups. Usually clear so you can see through the container for accurate measuring Liquids are measured by ounces 8 ounces in one cup • 2 Tablespoons equal 1 fluid ounce 13 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Measuring Liquid Ingredients Liquid ingredients can include: • Milk, water, oil, juice, vanilla extract, etc. To measure 1/4 cup or more of a liquid ingredient, use a clear, liquid measuring cup. • Place the cup on level surface and read measurements at eye level. For smaller amounts use measuring spoons. • Fill the spoon until a slight dome is visible. 14 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Measuring liquids using Ladle Chefs use ladles to portion correctly – accurate and saves time. Measurement is on handle Example, 1 ounce ladle for sauce Example, 4 ounce ladle for cup of soup 15 Measuring small amounts – Measuring Spoons Basic set is 4 measuring spoons • 16 Tablespoons = 1 cup (dry or fluid) • 3 teaspoons equal 1 Tablespoon 16 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Name That Utensil Serving spoons & cups vary in size. Only use these standard measuring utensils… Can you name them? 17 ©2002 Learning Zone Express The Right Measuring Utensil What are two ingredients that you’d measure with when using: • measuring spoons? • dry/solid measuring cups? • a liquid measuring cup? Which measuring utensil would you use to measure each of these ingredients? • • • • 18 1 1/3 cups flour 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder 1/2 cup milk 2 tablespoons cooking oil ©2002 Learning Zone Express Measuring Solid Ingredients Sticks of butter and margarine have measurements marked on the wrapper. • One stick = 1/2 cup or 8 tablespoons Measure solid fats, such as shortening or peanut butter, in a dry measuring cup. • Pack it into the cup and level it with a spatula. Then use a plastic scraper to remove it from the cup. 19 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Basic Equivalents Equivalents are amounts that are equal to each other. • They are useful when you must alter or change a recipe to serve more or less people than the recipe yields. Dry/Liquid equivalents: • 1 cup (liquid or dry) = • 1 cup (liquid) = 16 Tablespoons 8 fluid ounces – A fluid ounce is 2 Tablespoons (16/cup) • 3 teaspoons = 1 Tablespoon • If you know the above equivalents you can figure out almost any measuring problems! 20 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Basic Equivalents Liquid 1 fluid ounce = 2 Tablespoons 8 fluid ounces = 1 cup 1 pint = 2 cups 1 quart = 2 pints = 4 cups 1 gallon = 4 quarts = 8 pints = 16 cups 21 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Basic Equivalents To help you remember: A formula 2 c. = 1 pt. 2 pt. = 1 qt. 4 qt. = 1 gal. 22 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Equivalents at the Store At the store, many foods are sold by the pint or by the quart. Many recipes will ask you to measure those foods by the cup. Example: Milk, cream, sour cream Here is a helpful guide: 23 • 1 cup = 1/2 pint • 2 cups = 1 pint • 4 cups = 2 pints • 4 cups = 1 quart • 4 quarts = 1 gallon ©2002 Learning Zone Express Equivalents at the Store Answer the following questions with one of these amounts: 1/2 pint 1 pint 1 quart What size container will you buy if. . . 1. A recipe for salad calls for 2 cups of cottage cheese.? 2. A recipe for a fruit dessert calls for 1 cup of whipping cream? 3. You need 4 cups of milk for a pudding? 4. You need 2 cups of sour cream to make a dip? 5. A recipe for fruit salad says to mix 8 ounces of yogurt with fruit? 24 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Equivalents at the Store Now that you know how many cups make up 1/2 pint, 1 pint, and 1 quart, try to figure out how many ounces are in these amounts: 25 • 1 cup = ___ oz. • 1/2 pint = ___ oz. • 1 pint = ___ oz. • 1 quart = ___ oz. • 1 gallon = ___ oz. ©2002 Learning Zone Express Basic Equivalents Pop Quiz 1. 1. 1 pint = ____ cups 2. 2. 1 gallon = ____ quarts 3. 3. 1 quart = ____ cups 4. 4. 1 cup = ____ tablespoons 5. 5. 1 tablespoon 26 ©2002 Learning Zone Express = ____ teaspoons Putting Cups Together Useful amounts to know: • • • • • • 2/3 cup 3/4 cup 1/8 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup = = = = = = 1/3 cup + 1/3 cup 1/2 cup + 1/4 cup half of 1/4 cup 1/2 cup + 1/2 cup 1/3 cup + 1/3 cup + 1/3 cup 1/4 cup + 1/4 cup + 1/4 cup + 1/4 cup How would you measure these amounts? • 1 1/4 cups • 2/3 cup • 3/4 cup 27 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Conversion factor CF means conversion factor Use when you want to change a recipe yield Formula: Divide what you want by what you have 28 ©2002 Learning Zone Express How Do You Measure Up? This recipe for Chocolate Chip Cookies yields 3 dozen. You need to make 6 dozen. Write down the measurements you would use to double this recipe. Use correct abbreviations. Chocolate Chip Cookies Yields 3 dozen. 2 1/4 cup flour 1 teaspoon baking soda 1/4 teaspoon salt 1 cup margarine 3/4 cup sugar 29 ©2002 Learning Zone Express 3/4 cup brown sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 2 eggs 2 cup chocolate chips How Do You Measure Up? Your Grandma’s recipe for Chocolate Cake makes a large cake so you want to make only half of a cake. Write down the new measurements you would need to make half this recipe. Use correct abbreviations. Chocolate Cake 2 cups sugar 1/2 cup butter 2 eggs 1 cup buttermilk 2 1/2 cups cake flour 30 ©2002 Learning Zone Express 2 teaspoons baking soda 2 chocolate squares 1/2 teaspoon salt 2/3 cup warm water 1 teaspoon vanilla extract How Do You Measure Up? BONUS What is half of 2/3 cup? If a recipe calls for one egg and you want to cut the recipe in half, how might you half an egg? Answer: 1 large egg = 1/4 cup. Crack egg into bowl and mix with fork. Pour out approximately 1/2 or 2 tablespoons of egg. 31 ©2002 Learning Zone Express You’re the Expert Jenny is throwing a surprise birthday party for her best friend Katie. She has decided to make Katie’s favorite dish, meat loaf. There will be a total of 40 people at the party. Answer the following questions: • The recipe says it serves 8 people. By what number should Jenny multiply each ingredient to make enough meat loaf for everyone? • The recipe calls for 1 1/2 lbs. of ground beef. How much ground beef will Jenny need to make enough meat loaf for everyone? • Jenny will be serving milk with the meal. She plans on using 8 oz. glasses. How many gallons of milk does she need to make sure everyone gets one glass of milk? 32 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Kitchen Math Quiz Write down the answers to the following questions. 1. 1 tablespoon is equivalent to __ teaspoons and 1 fluid ounce is equivalent to __ tablespoons. a. b. c. d. 2. 3, 4 4, 1 3, 2 2, 3 How would you measure the following amounts? a. b. c. d. 33 a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. 2/3 cup 1/8 cup 1 2/3 cup 2 3/4 cups ©2002 Learning Zone Express Kitchen Math Quiz 5. True of False? a. a. Liquids should always be measured at eye level. b. b. When measuring flour you should scoop it into a dry measuring cup, pack it, and level it with a straight edge. c. c. One stick of butter is equal to 1 cup. 6. Look at each of the following measurements and determine which amount is larger: a. b. c. d. 34 a. b. c. d. 1/3 cup or 1/4 cup 1 pound or 18 ounces 1 tablespoon or 4 teaspoons 1 pint or 3 cups ©2002 Learning Zone Express Kitchen Math Quiz 3. The number of servings a recipe makes is called its ________. a. b. c. d. 4. serving size yield equivalent supply Match the term on the left with the appropriate abbreviation on the right. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 35 a. b. c. d. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. pounds cups tablespoons teaspoons ounces ©2002 Learning Zone Express a. b. c. d. e. c. Tbsp. lb. tsp. oz. Applying What You Know Choose one of the following assignments to complete outside of class. Create a worksheet of math word problems based on kitchen measurements. Be sure to create an answer sheet. Trade worksheets with a classmate and grade each other’s work. Create new recipe cards that double and cut in half a favorite recipe. For extra credit make the recipe and evaluate the results. Create an easy-to-read poster of common abbreviations and basic equivalents. Be sure to include visuals and display accurate information. 36 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Exploring the Web Here are some suggested sites you and your class may want to investigate for more information on measuring: • http://www.applejournal.com/ref01.htm • Basic kitchen measurements and abbreviations. • http://www.nursehealer.com/Recipes6.htm – Measurements and substitutions. 37 Teachers: Please note that web sites are constantly changing and being ©2002 Learning Zone Express updated. You may need to revise this list.