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KitMath REVISED 2 14

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KitMath REVISED 2 14
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Sara Jane Strecker, FACS Educator
©2002 Learning Zone Express
KITCHEN MATH
 Intro to Culinary
 Standard:
 HOSP-ICA-5
 Name and describe various fixed equipment
and small wares associated with the
commercial kitchen and bake shop.
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How are ingredients categorized?
 Baking basics – categorize as either liquid or
dry ingredients.
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Dry Ingredients are measured in
standardized nested measuring cups
 Basic tools for measuring dry ingredients:
Nested measuring cups – 4 in a set
 Cups measure by volume
• 16 Tablespoons = 1 Cup
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Measuring Dry Ingredients
 Measuring flour:
• Do not pack the flour into the
measuring cup or spoon because you will
end up with more flour. Instead, SCOOP flour
into the cup and LEVEL with a spatula or knife.
 Measuring brown sugar:
• PACK the brown sugar tightly into the measuring cup or spoon.
Once it is packed down, level it with a straight edge or knife.
 Measuring granulated sugar:
• Fill the cup with sugar. Level with the back of a spatula or knife
so that sugar is even with top of measuring cup or spoon.
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Other items that could be measured in
a nested cup
 Nuts – example, 1 cup chopped walnuts
 Vegetables – example, 1 cup chopped celery or
½ cup finely chopped onion
 Fruit – 1 cup diced apple or 1 cup dried
cranberries
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Measuring Large Quantities
 Professional recipes may use large amounts of
ingredients
• Example: 175 biscuits may us 6 pounds of flour
For accuracy and time management,
professionals weigh ingredients
• Portion Scale
• Electronic Scale
• Balance Scale
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Portion Scale
 Spring scale used to determine the weight of an
ingredient or portion of food
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Electronic Scale
 Electronic, or digital.
 Readout is very accurate
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Balance Scale
 Used to measure most baking ingredients
 Product on one side and weights on the other.
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Portion Scoops
 Scoops are often used in the professional
kitchen
 Scoops are color coded for portions
 Example, purple scoop is .88 ounce or slightly
less than 2 Tablespoons
 They may be called dishers
 Scoop doughs or food product such as mashed
potatoes
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Liquid Ingredients
 Measure in clear measuring vessels designed
for liquid. Volume measurement
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Measuring liquids
 Liquids such as milk, oil and water are
measured in liquid measuring cups.
 Usually clear so you can see through the
container for accurate measuring
 Liquids are measured by ounces
 8 ounces in one cup
• 2 Tablespoons equal 1 fluid ounce
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
Measuring Liquid Ingredients
 Liquid ingredients can include:
• Milk, water, oil, juice, vanilla extract, etc.
 To measure 1/4 cup or more of a
liquid ingredient, use a clear, liquid
measuring cup.
• Place the cup on level surface and read measurements at eye level.
 For smaller amounts use measuring spoons.
• Fill the spoon until a slight dome is visible.
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Measuring liquids using Ladle
 Chefs use ladles to portion correctly – accurate
and saves time.
 Measurement is on handle
 Example, 1 ounce ladle for sauce
 Example, 4 ounce ladle for cup of soup
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Measuring small amounts –
Measuring Spoons
 Basic set is 4 measuring spoons
• 16 Tablespoons = 1 cup (dry or fluid)
• 3 teaspoons equal 1 Tablespoon
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Name That Utensil
 Serving spoons & cups vary in size. Only use
these standard measuring utensils…
Can you name them?
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The Right Measuring Utensil
 What are two ingredients that
you’d measure with when using:
• measuring spoons?
• dry/solid measuring cups?
• a liquid measuring cup?
 Which measuring utensil would you use to
measure each of these ingredients?
•
•
•
•
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1 1/3 cups flour
1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 cup milk
2 tablespoons cooking oil
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Measuring Solid Ingredients
 Sticks of butter and margarine
have measurements marked
on the wrapper.
• One stick = 1/2 cup or 8 tablespoons
 Measure solid fats, such as shortening or
peanut butter, in a dry measuring cup.
• Pack it into the cup and level it with a spatula. Then use a
plastic scraper to remove it from the cup.
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Basic Equivalents
 Equivalents are amounts that are equal to each other.
• They are useful when you must alter or change a recipe
to serve more or less people than the recipe yields.
 Dry/Liquid equivalents:
• 1 cup (liquid or dry) =
• 1 cup (liquid)
=
16 Tablespoons
8 fluid ounces
– A fluid ounce is 2 Tablespoons (16/cup)
• 3 teaspoons
=
1 Tablespoon
• If you know the above equivalents you can figure
out almost any measuring problems!
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Basic Equivalents Liquid
 1 fluid ounce = 2 Tablespoons
 8 fluid ounces = 1 cup
1 pint = 2 cups
1 quart = 2 pints = 4 cups
1 gallon = 4 quarts = 8 pints = 16 cups
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Basic Equivalents
 To help you
remember:
A formula
2 c. = 1 pt.
2 pt. = 1 qt.
4 qt. = 1 gal.
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Equivalents at the Store
 At the store, many foods are sold by the pint or by
the quart. Many recipes will ask you to measure
those foods by the cup. Example: Milk, cream,
sour cream
 Here is a helpful guide:
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• 1 cup
=
1/2 pint
• 2 cups
=
1 pint
• 4 cups
=
2 pints
• 4 cups
=
1 quart
• 4 quarts
=
1 gallon
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Equivalents at the Store
 Answer the following questions with one of these amounts:
1/2 pint
1 pint
1 quart
What size container will you buy if. . .
1. A recipe for salad calls for 2 cups of cottage cheese.?
2. A recipe for a fruit dessert calls for 1 cup of whipping cream?
3. You need 4 cups of milk for a pudding?
4. You need 2 cups of sour cream to make a dip?
5. A recipe for fruit salad says to mix 8 ounces of yogurt with
fruit?
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
Equivalents at the Store
 Now that you know how many cups make up 1/2 pint,
1 pint, and 1 quart, try to figure out how many ounces
are in these amounts:
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• 1 cup
=
___ oz.
• 1/2 pint
=
___ oz.
• 1 pint
=
___ oz.
• 1 quart
=
___ oz.
• 1 gallon
=
___ oz.
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Basic Equivalents Pop Quiz
1. 1. 1 pint
=
____ cups
2. 2. 1 gallon
=
____ quarts
3. 3. 1 quart
=
____ cups
4. 4. 1 cup
=
____ tablespoons
5. 5. 1 tablespoon
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=
____ teaspoons
Putting Cups Together
 Useful amounts to know:
•
•
•
•
•
•
2/3 cup
3/4 cup
1/8 cup
1 cup
1 cup
1 cup
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=
=
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=
=
1/3 cup + 1/3 cup
1/2 cup + 1/4 cup
half of 1/4 cup
1/2 cup + 1/2 cup
1/3 cup + 1/3 cup + 1/3 cup
1/4 cup + 1/4 cup + 1/4 cup + 1/4 cup
 How would you measure these amounts?
• 1 1/4 cups
• 2/3 cup
• 3/4 cup
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Conversion factor
 CF means conversion factor
 Use when you want to change a recipe yield
 Formula: Divide what you want by what you
have
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How Do You Measure Up?
 This recipe for Chocolate Chip Cookies yields 3 dozen.
You need to make 6 dozen. Write down the measurements
you would use to double this recipe. Use correct abbreviations.
Chocolate Chip Cookies
Yields 3 dozen.
2 1/4 cup flour
1 teaspoon baking soda
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 cup margarine
3/4 cup sugar
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3/4 cup brown sugar
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
2 eggs
2 cup chocolate chips
How Do You Measure Up?
 Your Grandma’s recipe for Chocolate Cake makes a
large cake so you want to make only half of a cake.
Write down the new measurements you would need to
make half this recipe. Use correct abbreviations.
Chocolate Cake
2 cups sugar
1/2 cup butter
2 eggs
1 cup buttermilk
2 1/2 cups cake flour
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2 teaspoons baking soda
2 chocolate squares
1/2 teaspoon salt
2/3 cup warm water
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
How Do You Measure Up?
BONUS
 What is half of 2/3 cup?
 If a recipe calls for one egg and you want to cut
the recipe in half, how might you half an egg?
Answer: 1 large egg = 1/4 cup.
Crack egg into bowl and mix with
fork. Pour out approximately 1/2
or 2 tablespoons of egg.
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You’re the Expert
 Jenny is throwing a surprise birthday party for her best
friend Katie. She has decided to make Katie’s favorite
dish, meat loaf. There will be a total of 40 people at the
party. Answer the following questions:
• The recipe says it serves 8 people. By what number should Jenny
multiply each ingredient to make enough meat loaf for everyone?
• The recipe calls for 1 1/2 lbs. of ground beef. How much ground
beef will Jenny need to make enough meat loaf for everyone?
• Jenny will be serving milk with the meal. She plans on using 8 oz.
glasses. How many gallons of milk does she need to make sure
everyone gets one glass of milk?
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
Kitchen Math Quiz
Write down the answers to the following questions.
1.
1 tablespoon is equivalent to __ teaspoons
and 1 fluid ounce is equivalent to __ tablespoons.
a.
b.
c.
d.
2.
3, 4
4, 1
3, 2
2, 3
How would you measure the following amounts?
a.
b.
c.
d.
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a.
b.
c.
d.
a.
b.
c.
d.
2/3 cup
1/8 cup
1 2/3 cup
2 3/4 cups
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Kitchen Math Quiz
5.
True of False?
a. a. Liquids should always be measured at eye level.
b. b. When measuring flour you should scoop it into a dry
measuring cup, pack it, and level it with a straight edge.
c. c. One stick of butter is equal to 1 cup.
6.
Look at each of the following measurements and
determine which amount is larger:
a.
b.
c.
d.
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a.
b.
c.
d.
1/3 cup or 1/4 cup
1 pound or 18 ounces
1 tablespoon or 4 teaspoons
1 pint or 3 cups
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Kitchen Math Quiz
3.
The number of servings a recipe
makes is called its ________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
4.
serving size
yield
equivalent
supply
Match the term on the left with the appropriate
abbreviation on the right.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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a.
b.
c.
d.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
pounds
cups
tablespoons
teaspoons
ounces
©2002 Learning Zone Express
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
c.
Tbsp.
lb.
tsp.
oz.
Applying What You Know
Choose one of the following assignments to complete outside of class.
 Create a worksheet of math word problems based on
kitchen measurements. Be sure to create an answer
sheet. Trade worksheets with a classmate and grade
each other’s work.
 Create new recipe cards that double and cut in half a
favorite recipe. For extra credit make the recipe and
evaluate the results.
 Create an easy-to-read poster of common
abbreviations and basic equivalents. Be sure to
include visuals and display accurate information.
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Exploring the Web
 Here are some suggested sites you and
your class may want to investigate for
more information on measuring:
• http://www.applejournal.com/ref01.htm
• Basic kitchen measurements and abbreviations.
• http://www.nursehealer.com/Recipes6.htm
– Measurements and substitutions.
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 Teachers: Please note that web sites are constantly changing and being
©2002 Learning Zone Express
updated. You may need to revise this list.
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