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3-2 Notes - iBlog Teacher Websites

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3-2 Notes - iBlog Teacher Websites
Chapter 3,
Section 2
Hinduism and Buddhism Develop
India’s Geography
 India is a land of great Diversity


Has over 110 different languages with
over 1100 dialects spoken
Geography ranges from fertile forests
to desert, to high mountains
 Indian Subcontinent



Smaller than a continent
Subcontinent of Asia
Divided from Asia by Himalaya and
Hindu Kush mountain ranges
Aryan Invasion/Migration
 Aryans come to India

1500 BCE – group of
Indo-European
nomads began to
move out of Central
Asia
 Warfare = were
advanced fighters
 Arrival in India Advanced East
from Indus Valley,
eventually
occupying almost
all of India
Hinduism Evolves Over
Centuries
Hinduism
 Collection
of religious beliefs that
developed slowly over time
 No one founder with a single set
of ideas
The Vedas
 1200 BCE-600 BCE
 Written in Sanskrit
 Hindu core of beliefs
 Hymns & poems
 Religious prayers
 Magical spells
 Lists of the gods
 Rig Veda = oldest work
 Origins and Beliefs
750-500 BC, Hindu teachers create
Upanishads-texts of teachings
 Each person has atman-soul united
with all others in Brahman
 In reincarnation, people reborn to new
lives
 A soul’s good and bad deeds, karma,
determines course of new life

 Hinduism Changes and Develops
Over last 2,500 years different forms
of god grow in importance
 Today, Hindus choose own path to
moksha-a state of perfect
understanding

 Hinduism and Society

Hinduism strengthened the caste
system
Caste System
 System was not originally particularly
rigid


Contained opportunity for mobility
Intermarriage between castes was allowed
 System became increasingly complex
and rigid as time went on



Hundreds of castes
No social contact between them
At bottom, were the “untouchables”
Brahmins
 Who is…




The mouth?
The arms?
The legs?
The feet?
Caste System
Kshatriyas
Vaishyas
Shudras
New Religions Arise
 Jainism,
a new religion, arises in
500s BC
 Jains will not harm any creature
 They work in trade, commerce;
practice religious tolerance
The Buddha Seeks
Enlightenment
Siddhartha Gautama
 Founder
of Buddhism; priests
prophesized his greatness
 Siddhartha's Quest
Raised in isolation, Siddhartha
Gautama wants to learn about world
 Seeks enlightenment (wisdom), how
to escape human suffering
 Tries many methods; gains
enlightenment by meditating
 Becomes the Buddha, the
“enlightened one”

 Seeking Truth
 Siddhartha tried many different ways of achieving
enlightenment.
 He tried mediation, fasting, physical discomfort, but
none along worked for him.
 He almost starved himself to death at one point.
 After that he knew he needed to try something
different.
 Enlightenment
 Siddhartha decided that he would meditate until he
discovered the way to end human suffering.
 Bodhi Tree: He sat under a Bodhi tree and said that
he would not get up until he had achieved
enlightenment.
 He mediated for 40 days amidst temptation, and at
the end said that he was “awake” he had achieved,
Nirvana, or Enlightenment. This is when he became
the Buddha, or enlightened one.
 Origins and Beliefs
 Buddha begins to teach followers
 Preaches Four Noble Truths-basic
philosophy of Buddhism
 Fourth Noble Truth is to follow the Eightfold
Path to achieve nirvana
 Nirvana:




A perfect state of understanding
A release from selfishness and pain
A break from the chain of reincarnations,
rebirths
Buddha rejects caste system and multiple
gods of Hinduism
The Religious Community
 Some
followers devote lives to
religion, become monks and nuns
 Three bases of Buddhism:
Buddha
religious
community
teachings
Buddhism and Society
 Many
followers at first among
poor and lower caste
 Monks and nuns spread
Buddha’s teachings
 Teachings written to become
sacred literature
Buddhism in India
 Spreads
to other parts of Asia
 Never gains firm hold in India;
Hinduism remains strong
 Buddhist pilgrims often visit India
Trade and the Spread of
Buddhism
 Buddhism
Sri
spreads by traders to
Lanka, Burma, Thailand,
Sumatra
China, Korea, Japan
Buddha’s Life
 Buddha practices what he
preached





Only owned simple robe,
walking stick, and wooden bowl
Always slept outside and
walked everywhere he went
Presented his creed in a simple
language
Treated all persons equally
Many people attracted to him as
a result

Millions of converts across Asia
Spread of Buddhism
 Convents and
Monasteries: The Buddha
had many followers, both
men and women. He did
not discriminate based on
gender.
 Death of the Buddha: He
died of food poisoning at
the home of a friend.
 Scriptures: His teachings
were collected in the
Tripitika, or three baskets
of wisdom.
Buddhist Traditions
 Buddhism ultimately split into 2
traditions
 Theravada (Little Vehicle)


Do not view Buddha as a god,
was just a great man
Strict practice and dediction
 Mahayana (Big Vehicle)
 Largest of the two
 Buddha was human incarnation of
Brahma; Buddha was a god


Led to worship of Buddha,
creation of idols, elaborate rituals,
and temples
Vow not to reach Nirvana, instead
stay to help others reach Nirvana
first
Stupa
 Shrine that houses Buddhist relics
Fly UP