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Chapter 15 - Delmar Cengage Learning

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Chapter 15 - Delmar Cengage Learning
Chapter 15
Syrups, Creams, Custards,
Egg Foams and Icings
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Sugar Solutions
CHAPTER
• Sugar Solutions
– A combination of sugar and water that is brought to
a boil and cooked to a certain temperature
– Baumé
– Simple Syrup
– 30 Baumé Syrup
– Cake Syrup
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
15
Sugar Solutions
• Sugar Solutions
– Ingredients and Process for Sugar Solution
• Cane sugar / Beet sugar
• Crystallization of sugar
• No impurity in sugar or water
• No agitation during cooking
– Cooking Sugar
• Heated above the boiling point
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Creams
• Basic Creams and Custards
– Whipped cream
– Crème Chantilly
– Cooked Stirred Custards
• Crème Anglaise
• Pastry Cream
– Baked Custards
• Crème Brûlée
• Pot de Crème
– Almond Cream
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Creams
• Basic Creams and Custards
CHAPTER
15
– Whipped Cream
• Heavy cream that has been whipped to increase its volume
and lighten the texture
• 35-40% butter fat is desired
• Use cool cream and equipments depending on the room
temperature
• Whip on medium speed
– Crème Chantilly
• Vanilla-flavored whipped cream
• 15% of sugar based on the weight of the cream
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Creams
• Basic Creams and Custards
– Almond Cream
• Used as a filling for a variety of baked goods
• Butter, sugar, eggs and nut meal
• Almond paste can be substituted with almond meal
– Frangipane
• Lighter taste and texture than almond cream
• Two parts of almond cream to one part of pastry cream
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Creams
• Basic Creams and Custards
– Crème Anglaise
• Cooked Stirred Custard
• Used as a base for dessert sauces, bases for ice cream,
butter cream and mousse
• Never cooked above 180°F
• Crème Anglaise Ingredients and Variations
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Creams
• Basic Creams and Custards
– Crème Anglaise Ingredients and Variations
• Milk and Cream
• Sugar
• Egg yolks
• Flavorings: vanilla, herbs, alcohols, nut pastes, chocolate
• Hot or Cold Infusion
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Creams
• Basic Creams and Custards
CHAPTER
15
– Preparing Crème Anglaise
• Bring liquid ingredients to a boil with half of the sugar
• Mix another half of the sugar with egg yolks, stir to combine
• Temper the hot milk and the yolk mixture together
• Cook the mixture to 180°F
– Overcooking the mixture
– Sanitations
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Creams
• Basic Creams and Custards
CHAPTER
15
– Pastry Cream
• Cooked, stirred custard
• Used fresh or baked
• Very versatile
– Ingredients and composition
• Milk, sugar, eggs or yolks, cornstarch, butter
• Cornstarch thickens the cream and protects the egg protein
from curdling
• Butter softens the texture
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Creams
CHAPTER
• Basic Creams and Custards
– Preparing Pastry Cream
• Same as Crème Anglaise, but pastry cream has to be brought to
a boil
• Fully swell the starch and cook off starchiness
• Deposit into a shallow container to cool down quickly, and cover
with plastic on contact
– Pastry Cream Considerations
• Always cook in stainless steel pot
• Boil for 2 minutes
• Cool down quickly
• Syneresis
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
15
Custards
• Baked Custards
– Custard Base – contain whole eggs
– Liquid – milk and/or cream
– Sugar
– Flavorings
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Custards
CHAPTER
• Baked Custards
15
– Crème Brûlée
• Rich custard with a thin layer of caramelized sugar
• Baked in a low, wide ramekin, then chilled to set after baking
• Before serving the custard is sprinkled with sugar and torched to
burn the sugar
– Crème Caramel
• Slightly firmer than crème brûlée
• Turned out of a mold before serving
• Caramelized sugar is poured into molds, then custard is poured in
and baked
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Custards
• Baked Custard
– Pot de Crème
• Chocolate is the most common flavor
• Cooked at a low temperature in water bath
• Served in the dish in which it was baked
– Cheesecake
• Cream cheese, sour cream, butter, sugar, eggs and flavorings
• Set by coagulation of eggs
• Close attention is required to obtain a smooth batter
• Cooked at low temperature in water bath
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Advanced Creams
• Advanced Creams
– Combinations of basic creams
– Additional components: gelatin, egg foams, nut
pastes and chocolate
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Advanced Creams
• Advanced Creams
– Crème St. Honoré
• Also know as Crème Chiboust
• Pastry cream and French or Italian Meringue (4:1)
• Addition of gelatin for a stability
– Process
• Melt bloomed gelatin in warm pastry cream
• Make French or Italian meringue
• Fold in the meringue into pastry cream
• Use immediately
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Advanced Creams
• Advanced Creams
– Crème Paris-Brest
• 100% pastry cream, 50% butter and 25% praline paste
• Butter stabilizes the cream
– Process
• Smooth the pastry cream and the butter separately
• Add the praline paste to the butter and mix
• Add the pastry cream and mix
• Pipe immediately
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Advanced Creams
• Advanced Creams
– Diplomat Cream
• Pastry cream lighten with whipped cream and stabilized with
gelatin
• Crème Legere
– Process
• Whip the cream to a soft peak
• Whip the pastry cream until smooth
• Bloom the gelatin, melt and temper into the pastry cream
• Fold in the whipped cream just to incorporate
• Use immediately
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Advanced Creams
• Advanced Cream
– Mousseline Cream
• Cross between pastry cream and butter cream
• Combine pastry cream and soft butter until light and fluffy
– Process
• Make pastry cream base with half of the butter
• Once the cream is cooled, whip it until smooth
• Add room temperature butter and whip until full volume
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Advanced Creams
• Advanced Cream
CHAPTER
15
– Crémeux
• Crème Anglaise style custard thickened with butter and
sometimes gelatin
• Variety of flavoring options
– Process
• Add bloomed gelatin into crème Anglaise base to melt. Add
desired flavoring.
• Once the cream is 86-95°F, add softened butter
• Use an immersion blender to emulsify the cream
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Egg Foams
CHAPTER
• Egg Foams
– Whipped whole eggs, egg yolks, or egg whites with
sugar
– Bases of many pastry items
– Albumen
– Cooked Egg Foam
– Uncooked Egg Foam
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
15
Egg Foams
• Egg Foams
CHAPTER
15
– Meringue
• Beaten egg whites stabilized with sugar
• Must be processed in fat-free environment
• Denatured protein forms new bonds and trap air and water
in a delicate matrix
• Ratio of sugar to egg whites
• Additional Ingredients for Meringue
– Cream of tartar
– A mild acidic state strengthen the foam
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Egg Foams
• Egg Foams
– Meringue
• Precautions for Meringue
– Work with clean utensils
– Egg whites temperature 59-68°F
• Categories of Meringue Development
– Soft, Medium and Stiff Peaks
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Egg Foams
• Egg Foams
– French Meringue
• Minimum of 1:1 egg whites to sugar
• Up to 1:2 egg whites to sugar
– Process (1:1 egg whites to sugar)
• Whip the egg whites on medium speed with 1/3 of sugar
until uniform small foams are formed
• Increase the speed and mix to stiff peaks
• Add the remaining sugar and mix until incorporated
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Egg Foams
• Egg Foams
– Swiss Meringue
• More stable than French meringue
• Heat the egg whites and sugar before whipping
– Process
• Combine the egg whites and sugar in a mixing bowl, heat
over bain-marie as whisking.
• Once the temperature reached to the desired point
(between 120-160°F), whip on medium high speed until
stiff peaks form.
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Egg Foams
• Egg Foams
CHAPTER
15
– Italian Meringue
• Cooked meringue
• Commonly used in mousse, icing, topping etc
• Cooked sugar is poured over whipping whites
– Process
• Cook the sugar to the firm ball stage.
• Once the sugar reaches to 240°F, start whipping the egg whites
• Slowly add sugar syrup once it reaches 246-250°F
• Whip at medium-high speed for several minutes then mix on a low
speed until slightly cooled
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Egg Foams
• Egg Foams
– Pâte à Bombe
• Cooked egg foam with egg yolk and cooked sugar
• Provides rich flavor and color
– Process
• Cook the sugar to a firm ball stage
• Whip the egg yolk to a ribbon stage
• Process as in Italian meringue process
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Icing
• Used to fill, cover and decorate cakes,
pastries and cookies
• Butter cream, glaze, fondant, ganache, flat
icing, royal icing
• Protect the cake from drying out
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Icing
• Buttercream
– Basically, whipped butter sweetened with sugar,
with sometimes additional egg foams
– The fat determines the quality
• Butter
• Hydrogenated fat
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Icing
• Buttercream
CHAPTER
15
– Basic Buttercream
• Powdered sugar, butter and/or icing shortening
• Pasteurized egg whites, water or milk can be whipped in to
provide moisture
– Process
• Sift powdered sugar and add to a mixing bowl.
• Add the fat and mix to combine.
• Whip at a medium-high speed and add pasteurized egg
whites or other liquid if using.
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Icing
• Buttercream
– Swiss Buttercream
• Swiss meringue with softened butter
– Process
• Prepare Swiss meringue
• Once it is at full volume and cool, slowly add the softened
butter
• Whip until fully incorporated and light and fluffy.
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Icing
• Buttercream
CHAPTER
15
– Italian Buttercream
• Italian meringue with softened butter
• If butter was added while the meringue was still too hot,
whip on high speed to emulsify
– Process
• Make Italian meringue.
• Once cooled to room temperature, add the softened butter.
• Whip until light and fluffy and reserve.
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Icing
• Buttercream
– French Buttercream
• Pâte à bombe and softened buttercream
• Richest of all egg foam based buttercreams
• Reduced shelf life
– Process
• Make pâte à bombe
• Add the softened butter to the pâte à bombe once it has
cooled.
• Whip until light and fluffy and store in the refrigerator until
needed.
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Icing
• Buttercream
– Crème Anglaise Buttercream
• Also known as English buttercream
• The most flavorful, but the most prone to spoilage
• Crème Anglaise, softened butter and Italian meringue
– Process
• Make crème Anglaise, strain and whip in a mixer.
• Make Italian meringue and whip until cool down to room
temperature.
• Add the butter to the whipping crème Anglaise.
• Add the Italian meringue and fold to combine.
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Icing
• Buttercream
– Working with Buttercream
• High temperature melts the fat
• Butter the most difficult work with, because of the low
melting point
• Cold temperature hardens the buttercream
• Prepare the buttercream at the proper temperature
• Smooth and free of air pockets
• Flavor possibilities
• Incorporation of chocolate
• Keep the waste minimal
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Icing
CHAPTER
15
• Fondant
– Sugar syrup that has been cooled and agitated
– Smooth, white, creamy appearance
– Turn into liquid when heated
– Overheated fondant will have a dull appearance
– Working with Fondant
• Stir and heat up without incorporating any air
• Warm up to 100-120°F depends on type of fondant
• Colorant and/or flavorings can be added
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Icing
• Chocolate Glaze
– Essentially, thinned ganache
– Chocolate, gelatin, cocoa powder, sugar syrup,
cream, etc
– Versatile, can be applied to many products
– Working with Chocolate Glaze
• Prepare the glaze at proper temperature
• Prepare the items to be glazed cold or frozen
• Place the item on a pouring screen or sheet pan
• Minimize waste
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Icing
• Chocolate Ganache for Glazing
CHAPTER
15
– Ganache: creamy chocolate mixture made with liquid,
usually cream.
– Proper emulsion sets the glaze properly and provide
a shine
– Working with Chocolate Ganache
• Gently heat the ganache before using to obtain a desired
consistency
• It sets up faster than chocolate glaze, due to the high fat
content – work quickly
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Icing
• Fruit Glazes
CHAPTER
15
– Easy to prepare, vibrant in color
– Fruit puree, glucose, water and gelatin, may contain
cold process clear glaze
– Working with Fruit Glazes
• Avoid incorporation of air
• Prepare at proper temperature and proper consistency.
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Icing
CHAPTER
• Royal Icing
– Powdered sugar, water and egg whites
– Piped to create decorative borders and ornaments
– Sets up firmly after dried
– Can be colored as desired
• Flat Icing
– Powdered sugar and liquid such as water, milk and
lemon juice
– Can be flavored
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
15
Icing
• Other Icings
– Whipped Topping
• Non-dairy whipped cream replacement
– Crème Chantilly
– Italian Meringue
• Can be browned with torch for a visual effect
• Apply to pastries before the meringue sets up
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CHAPTER
15
Conclusion
CHAPTER
• Basic syrups, egg foams, creams and icings
are required to produce more advanced pastry
items
15
• Practice of proper sanitation, personal hygiene
and storage procedure
© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
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