...

20.4 Electronic Devices

by user

on
202

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

20.4 Electronic Devices
20.4 Electronic Devices
A computer uses
electric current to
process
information.
A toaster uses
electric current to
change electrical
energy into thermal
energy.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Electronic Signals
How do electronic signals convey
information?
Electronics conveys information with
electrical patterns called analog and digital
signals.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Electronic Signals
The science of using electric current to process or
transmit information is electronics.
• Information is carried by an electronic signal,
patterns in the controlled flow of electrons through a
circuit.
• If a voltage source is connected to a circuit,
electrons flow through the wire.
• Controlling the electron flow—by either altering the
voltage or turning the current on and off—produces a
coded signal.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Electronic Signals
Analog Signals
An analog signal is a smoothly varying signal
produced by continuously changing the voltage or
current in a circuit.
Information is encoded in the strength or
frequency of the analog signal.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Electronic Signals
Digital Signals
A digital signal encodes information as a string of
1’s and 0’s.
When the current is off, it represents a “0.” When
the current is on, it represents a “1.”
20.4 Electronic Devices
Electronic Signals
Electronic signals convey information by changing voltage or current
in a circuit.
A.
B.
An analog signal can be produced by smoothly changing voltage.
A digital signal can be produced by pulsing a current on and off.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Vacuum Tubes
How do vacuum tubes control electron flow?
Vacuum tubes can change alternating
current into direct current, increase the
strength of a signal, or turn a current on or
off.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Vacuum Tubes
A vacuum tube was used to control electron flow
in early electronic devices.
Vacuum tubes have many useful features, but
some types burn out frequently and need to be
replaced. They are also much too large for use in
small electronic devices.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Vacuum Tubes
One useful type of vacuum tube is a cathode-ray
tube (CRT).
• Three metal plates in the CRT emit electron beams.
• The electrons strike a glass surface on the other end
of the tube.
• The glass is coated with phosphors that glow red,
green, or blue in response to the electron beams.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Vacuum Tubes
A cathode-ray tube is used in many computer
monitors and television sets.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Semiconductors
What are two types of semiconductors?
In n-type semiconductors, the current is a
flow of electrons. In p-type semiconductors,
it appears as though positive charge flows.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Semiconductors
A semiconductor is a crystalline solid that
conducts current only under certain conditions.
• Most semiconductors are made with silicon or
germanium. In pure form, these elements are poor
conductors.
• When trace amounts of other elements are added, it
becomes possible to control the current inside the
crystals.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Semiconductors
• A p-type semiconductor can be made by adding
a trace amount of boron to silicon. Spaces
called holes occur at each boron atom. The
holes are positively charged.
• An n-type semiconductor can be made by
adding phosphorus to silicon. Phosphorus
atoms provide weakly bound electrons that can
flow.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Semiconductors
By themselves, n-type and p-type semiconductors
cannot do much.
• When joined together, electrons in the n-type
semiconductor are attracted toward the positively
charged holes in the p-type semiconductor.
• As electrons jump from hole to hole, it looks like a
flow of positive charge because the locations of the
holes change.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Semiconductors
A semiconductor becomes a good conductor of
charge if trace amounts of elements are added to
it.
N-type silicon,
with phosphorus
Electron (-)
P-type silicon,
with boron
Hole (+)
20.4 Electronic Devices
Solid-State Components
How are semiconductors used?
Most modern electronic devices are
controlled by solid-state components.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Solid-State Components
Semiconductor devices were first used in the late
1940s.
These devices were named solid-state
components because they used solids rather than
vacuum tubes to control current.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Solid-State Components
Diodes
A diode is a solid-state component that combines
an n-type and p-type semiconductor.
• When a voltage is applied across a diode, electrons
flow from the n-type to the p-type semiconductor.
• There is no current if voltage is applied in the
opposite direction.
• A diode can change alternating current to direct
current.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Solid-State Components
Transistors
A transistor is a solid-state component with three
layers of semiconductors.
• A small current flowing through its center layer
changes its resistance.
• A transistor can be a switch–the small current can
turn another current on or off.
• A transistor can be an amplifier–a small voltage
applied to one side produces a large voltage on the
other side.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Solid-State Components
A.
B.
A diode is two different semiconductors joined in one component.
A transistor is three semiconductors with the middle one different
from the outer ones.
Direction of
hole flow
Direction of
electron flow
Exchange of
electrons and
holes
20.4 Electronic Devices
Solid-State Components
Integrated Circuits
An integrated circuit is a thin slice of silicon that
contains many solid-state components. Integrated
circuits are sometimes called chips or microchips.
They perform as well as a network of vacuum
tubes, but they need only a tiny fraction of the
space.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Communications Technology
What are the benefits of using microchips in
communication devices?
Communication devices use microchips to
make them more portable, reliable, and
affordable.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Communications Technology
A computer is a programmable device that can
store and process information.
A mobile phone contains many solid-state
components.
• Transistors amplify the phone’s incoming signal.
• Capacitors store electric charge.
• Diodes maintain proper voltage levels in the circuits.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Communications Technology
A mobile phone uses many
solid-state components.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Assessment Questions
1. What is the function of a transistor in an electronic
device?
a.
b.
c.
d.
allows current flow in one direction but not the other
stores electrical charges until they are needed
acts as a current switch or amplifier
converts analog signals into digital signals
20.4 Electronic Devices
Assessment Questions
1. What is the function of a transistor in an electronic
device?
a.
b.
c.
d.
allows current flow in one direction but not the other
stores electrical charges until they are needed
acts as a current switch or amplifier
converts analog signals into digital signals
ANS: C
20.4 Electronic Devices
Assessment Questions
2. What is the structure of a diode?
a. a combination of an n-type semiconductor and a p-type
semiconductor
b. a combination of two n-type semiconductors
c. an n-type semiconductor layer between two p-type
semiconductors
d. any combination of three semiconductors
20.4 Electronic Devices
Assessment Questions
2. What is the structure of a diode?
a. a combination of an n-type semiconductor and a p-type
semiconductor
b. a combination of two n-type semiconductors
c. an n-type semiconductor layer between two p-type
semiconductors
d. any combination of three semiconductors
ANS: A
20.4 Electronic Devices
Assessment Questions
3. Why are devices using integrated circuits smaller than
comparable devices that do not use solid-state
components?
a. Many components can be built on a single silicon microchip.
b. Solid-state devices do not need as many circuit components.
c. Each vacuum tube is replaced by one microchip that is much
smaller.
d. Solid-state devices are smaller because they don’t need to hold as
much electricity.
20.4 Electronic Devices
Assessment Questions
3. Why are devices using integrated circuits smaller than
comparable devices that do not use solid-state
components?
a. Many components can be built on a single silicon microchip.
b. Solid-state devices do not need as many circuit components.
c. Each vacuum tube is replaced by one microchip that is much
smaller.
d. Solid-state devices are smaller because they don’t need to hold as
much electricity.
ANS: A
20.4 Electronic Devices
Assessment Questions
1. In electronic devices, a digital signal conveys
information by converting it into a string of 1’s and
0’s.
True
False
20.4 Electronic Devices
Assessment Questions
1. In electronic devices, a digital signal conveys
information by converting it into a string of 1’s and
0’s.
True
False
ANS:
T
Fly UP