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Issues, Facts, and Strategic Action

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Issues, Facts, and Strategic Action
Seminar on Scholarly Communication and the
UC Community
University of California
Office of Systemwide Library Planning
Fall 2003
Crisis in Scholarly Communications: Journals
Source: Bear Stearns European Equity Research report on Reed Elsevier. September 29, 2003
UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
Crisis in Scholarly Communications: Journals
Source: Graphic accompanied Weiss,
Rick. A Fight for Free Access To Medical
Research: Online Plan Challenges
Publishers' Dominance. Washington
Post.
Tuesday, August 5, 2003; Page A01
UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
Crisis in Scholarly Communications: Journals
Average Cost
Per Title
Average Cost
Per Title
Anthropology
1999
259.21
2003
353.44
Chemistry
1,682.94
2,403.06
42.79
Education
207.79
305.73
47.13
Engineering
981.19
1,359.52
38.56
Philosophy &
Religion
Political
Science
123.27
169.89
37.82
208.07
315.00
51.39
LC Subject
Classification
Percentage of
Increase
1999-2003
36.35
Source: Van Orsdel & Born, Library Journal, April 15, 2003
UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
Stress and Unsustainability: commercial
publishers’ contributions
STM Journal Prices Commercial vs. Non-commercial
Field
Ecology
Economics
Atmos. Sci.
Mathematics
Neuroscience
Physics
PRICE per PAGE
For-profit non-profit
$1.19
$0.19
$0.81
$0.16
$0.95
$0.15
$0.70
$0.27
$0.89
$0.10
$0.63
$0.19
PRICE per CITATION
For-profit Non-profit
$0.73
$0.05
$2.33
$0.15
$0.88
$0.07
$1.32
$0.28
$0.23
$0.04
$0.38
$0.05
Note: 66% of the STM journal market is occupied by commercial companies
Source: Carl T. Bergstrom and Ted C. Bergstrom. The economics of scholarly journal publishing. September 2002
at http://octavia.zoology.washington.edu/publishing/intro.html
UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
Crisis in Scholarly Communications: Reed Elsevier
Case Study
Elsevier journals cost vs. use at UC 2002-03
100%
80%
60%
75%
68%
50%
All Others
40%
20%
Elsevier
25%
32%
Use
(n= 10.2 million
dow nloads)
Titles
(n=4736 titles)
50%
0%
Cost
Source: UC Systemwide Library Planning, September 2003
UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
Crisis in Scholarly Communications: Reed Elsevier
Case Study
Elsevier average title price as percentage of industry-wide average title price*
Agriculture
1,428%
Chemistry & Physics
194%
Engineering
435%
Mathematics, Botany, Geology, General Science
287%
Medicine
209%
Psychology
254%
All subjects
642%
Elsevier is the dominant commercial publisher of STM journals. It has 23% of the
market share and over a $1 billion in annual revenues. The next player is the
American Chemical Society with 8% market share and $360 million in annual
revenues
* For 2002; calculated within disciplines; overall average based on 2003 Bowker Annual table entitled "U.S. Periodicals:
Average Prices and Price Indexes"; Elsevier averages from list prices. UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
Crisis in Scholarly Communications: Monographs
Source: Bear Stearns European Equity Research report on Reed Elsevier. September 29, 2003
UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
Crisis in Scholarly Communications:
Monographs
Growth in Worldwide Book Publishing. 1988-2002
1,200,000
1,000,000
Volumes
Book Titles Published Worldwide
800,000
600,000
400,000
200,000
0
1988-89
1992-93
1996-97
2000-01
UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
Crisis in Scholarly Communications: Societies
Sample of Society Titles Now Published by
Blackwell
Disciplines
Humanities & Soc. Sci.
STM
All
Avg. price increase
‘03-’04
15.7%
19.4
17.6
N (titles)
30
30
60
Source: UC Systemwide Library Planning, September 2003
UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
Crisis in Scholarly Communications: Society Case
Study - AAAS’s Science
UC Systemwide Subscription for
Science
$93,000
$61,000
2004 (under
negotiation)
2003 (under
negotiation)
2002
2001
$31,050 $34,590 $34,590
2000
$100,000
$80,000
$60,000
$40,000
$20,000
$0
Year
UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
Alternative Forms of Scholarly Communication
1. Personal and Departmental web pages
UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
Alternative Forms of Scholarly Communication
2. Discipline based repositories
(e.g. arXiv - a Physics/Comp.Sci./Math working paper
repository)
UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
Alternative Forms of Scholarly Communication
3. Institutional repositories
UC’s eScholarship Repository (as at October
2003)
# of departments, ORU’s, MRU’s participating: 119
# of papers deposited to date: 2291
# of papers downloaded last week: 8139
# of downloads since 04/02 launch: 230,000
% of downloads from outside UC: 97
# of countries from which people link: 76
# of sites that link to the repository: 1608
UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
Alternative Forms of Scholarly Communication
4. Competitively priced journals
Machine Learning Journal
Publisher: Kluwer
Price: $1050/year
Number of defecting editorial board members in 2001: 40
Journal of Machine Learning Research
Est. 2001, with help from SPARC
Publisher: MIT Press
Price: $195/year
One of 16 alternative journals supported in part by SPARC –
“motivated by service to the research community rather than by
profit.”
Source: SPARC web site and Ted Bergstrom’s Journal Pricing Page
UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
Alternative Forms and Economic Sustainability
Simulate d Price Proje ctions for Thre e Journal M ode ls
Subscription Price
Based on 9% Annual Price Increase for Subscription Models
Time
Commercial Publishers
Competitively Priced Journals
Open Access Journals
UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
Alternative Forms of Scholarly Communication
4. Open-access journals
• ~100 journals
• author publication charges
• institutional memberships can replace
author charges
• author publication charges
• 11 UC faculty on editorial board
• 16 UC faculty represented in
opening issues
• 551 journals listed
•19 journals added this month
• funded by the Open Society
Institute – Budapest & SPARC
UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
Potential for UC faculty action
As authors
Retain some rights in your publications
Place articles with high-quality alternatives to high-cost publications
As editors, reviewers, and authors:
Favor reasonably priced journals
As editors
Consider moving journals from publishers with unreasonable pricing
practices
As library users
Support and encourage the library’s aggressive negotiating stance
with uncompetitively priced publishers even where that stance
potentially results in title cuts
UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
Potential for UC faculty action
As participants in faculty promotions and rewards
processes
Implement promotion criteria that emphasize quality
without discouraging publication in fairly priced and
open-access publications
As society members
Encourage societies’ adoption or maintenance of
reasonable pricing mechanism
Encourage societies to lead in the search for sustainable
publishing models
UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
Potential for collective institutional action at UC
• Leverage existing agencies able to support new modes
of scholarly publishing (e.g. the Press, the libraries’
eScholarship program), supplementing them where
appropriate
• Take a lead in national bodies such as AAU in
identifying & mobilizing effective coordinated national
actions
UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
UC Scholarly Communication Faculty Seminars
END
UC Systemwide Library Planning Faculty Seminars Fall 2003
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