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1 cup
=
=
1
Sara Jane Strecker, FACS Educator
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Introduction
 Most cooks use recipes. A recipe
is a list of ingredients that gives
you directions for preparing a
specific food. If you know how
to follow recipes, then you will
be successful in the kitchen.
Who knows! You may
become a famous chef!
2
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Introduction
 Successful cooks know:
• How to read a recipe
• Abbreviations
• Measuring Techniques
• Equivalents
• How to Change a Recipe
3
©2002 Learning Zone Express
What’s in a recipe?
 A formula!
 Read the recipe before you cook.
The parts of the recipe tell you:
• Name
• Ingredients
• Equipment
• Directions
• Yield (number of servings)
• Sometimes - Nutritional Analysis
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
Parts of a Recipe
Name
What the
recipe is called.
 A recipe usually includes:
Quesadillas
Yield
(Serves 4 - 2 per person)
Number of
servings the
recipe makes.
Equipment
8 flour tortillas
Ingredients
1 cup grated cheese
1. Heat a frying pan over medium heat.
2. Place a tortilla in the pan.
3. Sprinkle 1/4 cup cheese on the tortilla.
4. Cover the cheese with another tortilla.
Directions
Steps you follow
to make the
recipe.
5
5. Cook about 1 minute, until brown and crisp. Then
turn the quesadilla over. Cook until the cheese
melts.
6. Place on a serving plate. Cut into pie shaped wedges.
7. Repeat process with remaining ingredients.
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Food products
you need to
make the recipe.
What’s an Abbreviation?
 Understanding the language of recipes takes
the guesswork out of cooking.
 Abbreviation - The shortened form of a word.
 Abbreviations in measuring units:
• Save space on the cookbook page.
• Make recipes easier to read.
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
Name the Abbreviations
 The U.S. uses the English system:
• Teaspoon
• Tablespoon
Tbsp. or T.
• Cup
c.
• Pint
pt.
• Quart
qt.
• Gallon
gal.
• Ounce/fluid ounce
• Pound
7
tsp. or t.
©2002 Learning Zone Express
oz./ fl. oz.
lb.
Name the Abbreviations
 More abbreviations:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Few grains, dash, pinch
Dozen
Pound
Inch
Second
Minute
Hour
• Degree
• Fahrenheit/Celsius
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
f.g.
doz.
lb.
in.
sec.
min.
hr.

F. / C
Abbreviations Pop Quiz #1
 What do these stand for?
• lb.
* pt.
• oz.
*gal.
• C.
• tsp. or t.
•  F.
• qt.
• fl. oz.
• Tbl. or T.
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
Name That Utensil
 Serving spoons & cups vary in size. Only use
these standard measuring utensils…
Can you name them?
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
Basic Equivalents
 Equivalents are amounts that are equal to each other.
• They are useful when you must alter or change a recipe
to serve more or less people than the recipe yields.
 Dry/Liquid equivalents:
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• Pinch or Dash
• 1 Tablespoon
=
=
less than 1/8 teaspoon
3 teaspoons
• 1/4 cup
• 1/2 cup
• 3/4 cup
=
=
=
4 Tablespoons
8 Tablespoons
12 Tablespoons
• 1 cup
=
16 Tablespoons
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Basic Equivalents
 To help you remember:
1 Tablespoon = 3 t e a spoons
There are 3 letters in the word tea and 3 teaspoons in a tablespoon.
1/4 c. = 4 Tbsp.
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
Basic Equivalents
 1 fluid ounce = 2 Tablespoons
 8 ounces = 1 cup
 16 ounces = 1 pound
1 pint = 2 cups
1 quart = 2 pints = 4 cups
1 gallon = 4 quarts = 8 pints = 16 cups
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
Basic Equivalents
 To help you
remember:
A formula
2 c. = 1 pt.
2 pt. = 1 qt.
4 qt. = 1 gal.
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
Equivalents at the Store
 At the store, many foods are sold by the pint or by
the quart. Many recipes will ask you to measure
those foods by the cup.
 Here is a helpful guide:
15
• 1 cup
=
1/2 pint
• 2 cups
=
1 pint
• 4 cups
=
2 pints
• 4 cups
=
1 quart
• 4 quarts
=
1 gallon
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Equivalents at the Store Quiz # 4
 Answer the following questions with one of these amounts:
1/2 pint
1 pint
1 quart
What size container will you buy if. . .
1. A recipe for salad calls for 2 cups of cottage cheese.?
2. A recipe for a fruit dessert calls for 1 cup of whipping cream?
3. You need 4 cups of milk for a pudding?
4. You need 2 cups of sour cream to make a dip?
5. A recipe for fruit salad says to mix 8 ounces of yogurt with
fruit?
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
Equivalents at the Store Quiz # 5
 Now that you know how many cups make up 1/2 pint,
1 pint, and 1 quart, try to figure out how many ounces
are in these amounts:
17
• 1 cup
=
___ oz.
• 1/2 pint
=
___ oz.
• 1 pint
=
___ oz.
• 1 quart
=
___ oz.
• 1 gallon
=
___ oz.
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Basic Equivalents Pop Quiz # 6
1. 1. 1 pint
=
____ cups
2. 2. 1 gallon
=
____ quarts
3. 3. 1 quart
=
____ cups
4. 4. 1 cup
=
____ tablespoons
5. 5. 1 tablespoon
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
=
____ teaspoons
Desired Yield
 1. Decide how many servings you need or want
in a recipe.
 This is know as the Desired Yield
 Use the formula
• Desired Yield / Original Yield = Number to multiply by
(conversion factor)
• Example: Recipe serves 8 (original yield) and you need to serve 4
(desired yield)
– 4/8 = 0.5 or ½
 Then multiply each ingredient by that number
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
How Do You Measure Up? Quiz # 7
 This recipe for Chocolate Chip Cookies yields 6 dozen.
You need to make 3 dozen. Write down the measurements
you would use to decrease this recipe. Use correct abbreviations.
Chocolate Chip Cookies
Yields 3 dozen.
2 1/4 cup flour
1 teaspoon baking soda
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 cup margarine
3/4 cup sugar
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
3/4 cup brown sugar
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
2 eggs
2 cup chocolate chips
How Do You Measure Up? Quiz # 8
 Your Grandma’s recipe for Chocolate Cake makes a
1 cake and you want to make 2 cake.
Write down the new measurements you would need to
double this recipe. Use correct abbreviations.
Chocolate Cake
2 cups sugar
1/2 cup butter
2 eggs
1 cup buttermilk
2 1/2 cups cake flour
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
2 teaspoons baking soda
2 chocolate squares
1/2 teaspoon salt
2/3 cup warm water
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
You’re the Expert
 Jenny is throwing a surprise birthday party for her best
friend Katie. She has decided to make Katie’s favorite
dish, meat loaf. There will be a total of 40 people at the
party. Answer the following questions:
• The recipe says it serves 8 people. By what number should Jenny
multiply each ingredient to make enough meat loaf for everyone?
• The recipe calls for 1 1/2 lbs. of ground beef. How much ground
beef will Jenny need to make enough meat loaf for everyone?
• Jenny will be serving milk with the meal. She plans on using 8 oz.
glasses. How many gallons of milk does she need to make sure
everyone gets one glass of milk?
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
Kitchen Math Quiz
Write down the answers to the following questions.
1.
1 tablespoon is equivalent to __ teaspoons
and 1 fluid ounce is equivalent to __ tablespoons.
a.
b.
c.
d.
2.
3, 4
4, 1
3, 2
2, 3
How would you measure the following amounts?
a.
b.
c.
d.
23
a.
b.
c.
d.
a.
b.
c.
d.
2/3 cup
1/8 cup
1 2/3 cup
2 3/4 cups
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Kitchen Math Quiz
3.
The number of servings a recipe
makes is called its ________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
4.
serving size
yield
equivalent
supply
Match the term on the left with the appropriate
abbreviation on the right.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
24
a.
b.
c.
d.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
pounds
cups
tablespoons
teaspoons
ounces
©2002 Learning Zone Express
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
c.
Tbsp. or T.
lb.
tsp. or t.
oz.
Kitchen Math Quiz
5.
True of False?
a. a. Liquids should always be measured at eye level.
b. b. When measuring flour you should scoop it into a dry
measuring cup, pack it, and level it with a straight edge.
c. c. One stick of butter is equal to 1 cup.
6.
Look at each of the following measurements and
determine which amount is larger:
a.
b.
c.
d.
25
a.
b.
c.
d.
1/3 cup or 1/4 cup
1 pound or 18 ounces
1 tablespoon or 4 teaspoons
1 pint or 3 cups
©2002 Learning Zone Express
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