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Slides developed by Ronald W. Toseland State University of New
Chapter 4
Leadership
Slides developed by
Ronald W. Toseland
State University of New York at Albany
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Leadership
• The process of guiding the group
• Task leaders help members achieve goals
• Relationship leaders meet the socioemotional needs of members
• Leadership is not static
– Reciprocal, transactional, transformational,
cooperative and adaptive
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Two Types of Leadership
• The designated leader(s)
• The indigenous leader(s)
– Stimulate and support indigenous leadership
– Members begin to feel they have power,
influence, control and a stake in the group
outcome
– Exercises their abilities; build self-esteem
– Gender and indigenous leadership
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Power and Leadership
• Two kinds of power
– Actual power
– Attributed power
• Attributed power –perception among
group members and others outside the
group
– Workers’ ability to lead
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Power and Leadership
• Comes from a variety of sources:
professional status, education, &
organizational position
– Boundaries between leader and member roles,
fees for service, leader accounts for the
group’s success
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Actual Power
• Connection power
• Expert power
• Information power
• Legitimate power
• Reference power
• Reward power
• Coercive power
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Methods for Sharing Power
• Encourage member-to-member rather
than member-to-leader communication
• Ask for members’ input into the agenda
and future direction of the group
• Support indigenous leadership when it
starts to occur –except if leader is a
bully/gang leader
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Theories of Group Leadership
• Old model – laissez-faire, democratic,
autocratic
• Newer models – situational, interactive,
transformative
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Factors Influencing Group
Leadership
• Leadership expectations of members
• Way leadership was obtained
• Competition between designated and
indigenous leadership
• Needs, tasks, and goals of the group as a
whole
• The task and socio-emotional skills of
members
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Interactive Group Leadership
• No one model of group leadership
• Leadership depends on
– Purpose of the group
– Type of problem
– The environment
• Physical setting, agency and organization, social
environment
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Interactive Group Leadership
– The group as a whole
• Size and physical arrangements
• Time limits
• Group dynamics
• Open and closed membership
• Stages of group development
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Interactive Group Leadership
– The group members
• Members’ characteristics
• Extent of participation
– The group leader
• Power base; skill level
• Personality
• Service technology
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Group Leadership Skills
• Facilitating group processes
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Attending and responding to others
Expressing self
Focusing group communication
Making group processes explicit
Clarifying content
Cuing, blocking and guiding interaction
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Group Leadership Skills
• Data gathering and assessment
– Identifying thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
– Requesting information, questioning, and
probing
– Summarizing and partializing
– Synthesizing thoughts, feelings and actions
– Analyzing information
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Group Leadership Skills
• Action
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–
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–
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Supporting
Reframing and redefining
Linking members’ communications
Directing
Giving advise, suggestions, instructions
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Group Leadership Skills
– Providing resources
– Disclosure
– Modeling, role playing, rehearsing and
coaching
– Confronting
– Resolving Conflicts
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Leadership Style
• What is your leadership style?
– Leadership Comfort Scale
– Beliefs About Structure Scale
– How Members Achieve Change Scale
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Co-leadership
• Benefits of Co-leadership
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Source of support
Feedback and professional development
Training for inexperienced leaders
Communication, interaction, dispute
resolution
– Assistance during therapeutic interventions
– Help setting limits and structuring the group
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Co-leadership
• Disadvantages
– More expensive
– Need to coordinate planning between
meetings
– Need to act as models
– Conflict and tension can occur between
seasoned and new leaders
– Conflict can negatively affect group outcomes
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Issues Co-leaders Should Talk Over
• Leadership style
• Strengths and weaknesses
• How you believe people change and how
you will intervene
• Expectations for group accomplishments
• Your roles in the group
An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 7e
Toseland and Rivas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
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