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Economics

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Economics
Economics
Presenter Name
Presenter Institution
ACRL Scholarly Communication 101:
Starting with the Basics
Macroeconomics of the SC system
Pure and applied research communities
Grants and funding agencies
Universities and research centers
Marketplace where info is sold/licensed
Legal systems
Public advocacy movements
Global information network
peer-reviewed journals
peer-reviewed articles per year
scholarly publishers (est.)
university presses
societies &
other nonprofits
commercial
publishers
Journal publisher size guide
Petite (5 or fewer)
Small (6-10)
Medium (11-25)
Large (26-50)
X-Large (51-100)
XX-Large (100+)
54%
11%
16%
8%
4%
7%
Scholarly publishing practice: academic journal publishers’ policies and
practices in online publishing, 3rd survey, ALPSP, 2008
Data from Outsell’s 2006 STM market report
STM sector
revenue in 2006
Data from Outsell’s 2006 STM market report
Dysfunction
rooted in
problematic
economic model
normal economy
Steel
Cars
Auto manufacturers
Steelmakers
$
Consumers
$
gift economy
Article
Author
Publisher
$
P&T
Grants
Reputation
Prestige
Journal
Library
$
wholesale transfer of rights
IP
creates scarcity/monopoly
Publisher
drives prices up
(inelastic market)
The result:
Average serial
price up 227%
Average book
price up 65%
CPI up 57%
Libraries challenge
pricing power
Subsidizing journal start-ups
Canceling journals
Cutting book purchases
Forming consortia
Fighting mergers
Publishers try to
sustain revenue flow
Tying print to online
Bundling journals
Requiring multi-yr contracts
Buying other publishers
Raising prices
cost to produce one journal article
Average journal
article
Average journal
article
My Facuty, PhD
My Facuty, PhD
XYZ Commercial
Publisher
ABC Not-forProfit Publisher
Amsterdam, London, New York
Roger Clarke, The cost profiles of alternative approaches to journal publishing, First Monday, 3 December 2007
Economics of quality?
9% $
91%
62%
citations
dollars
38%
citations
External Economic Pressures on Journals Market
U.S. Library Spending, R&D Spending, and Journals 1995-2007
From Outsell’s Open Access Primer (Public Version), December 2009
Scholarly communications
reform includes efforts to
establish balanced,
sustainable economic
models
Open Access (full)
(hybrid)
Article
Author
•
•
•
•
Journal
Article
Publisher
Grant/Research Foundation funding
Subsidy: Author/Institution/Library pays
Subscription to non-research content
Advertising
Free to all
readers
Outsell estimates of OA as of April 2009:
• OA articles 9.8% of articles
• 3.1% of market
• Growing 11.3% per year
Competitive economic models
• Open Journals System
• Scholarly Exchange
• Open Humanities Press
SCOAP3 transition model
Authors
Library
Publisher
SCOAP3
Governing
Board manages
bidding process
and pricing with
publishers
HEP
Journals
Free to all
readers
A crisis is a terrible
thing to waste
three things to think about
Long-term solution may
include shifting of library
funds from collecting to
producing or subsidizing
scholarly content
Outsell, a market
intelligence service, says
“access-based models will
not last.” Content is no
longer king in the STM
information business.
Questions?
Comments?
Lee C. Van Orsdel
Grand Valley State University
This work was created by Lee Van Orsdel for the ACRL
National Conference, Scholarly Communications 101
Workshop and last updated October 14, 2010.
Acknowledgement:
Slide 21 was revised by Kimberly Douglas (Caltech) and
included in the Oct. 14, 2010 version.
It is licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionNoncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/
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