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for Chinese MPA Education
From Quantity to Quality:
A “New Normal” for Chinese MPA
Education
Dr. Lan Xue, Professor and Dean
School of Public Policy and Management
Tsinghua University
April 13, 2015
1
Outline
 The background
 The evolution of Chinese PA education;
 New normal and new challenges





Mission: teaching, research, policy impact
Faculty: interdisciplinary and balance
Curriculum: theories, tools, management skills
Finance: education and research
Community: national and international
 Accreditation: to be or not to be?
2
I. Background
 Four major transformations in China since 1979:
 Economic system:
 planning=>market;
 industrial structure:
 Agriculture + manufacturing=>
manufacturing + service
 Society:
 rural=>urban;closed=>open;
 governance system:
 charisma and authority=>participation and rule of law
3
Economy: planning=>market
4
Industrial structure (I+II=>II+III)
 Agriculture
 GDP=>1980=30% => 2000=14.8% => 2013=10.0%
 Labor>1981=68.1%=》2012=33.6%
 Manufacturing
 GDP=> 1980=49% => 2000=45.9% => 2013=43.9%
 Labor=>1981=18.3%=》2012=30.0%
 Service:
 GDP: 1980=21% => 2000=39.3% => 2013=46.1%
 Labor: 1981=13.6%=》2012=36.1%
5
Society: rural + closed=>urban + open
 rural =>urban (see graphs)
 urban population=> 1982=20.6% => 2013=53.7%
 closed =>open
 Self reliance)=> Largest Trading part
 Attracting FDI
 2005=$ 26.5 billion => 2012 =$87.8 billion
 International trade=% of GDP
 1978=10% => 2013 =45%
 Overseas Travel:
 2000=10.47 million 2014=>100 million
6
Governance=>participation and rule of law
 Government
 Administrative reforms;
 Reorientation of functions;
 Expanded public services;
 Anti-corruption;
 Civil Society & Grassroots democracy
 NGO development;
 Village election;
 public participation in policy process;
 Reform in the legal system
 ……
7
I. Background—new normal
 Economic growth based on scale expansion and
export is running out of steam




Trade surplus unsustainable;
Domestic demands yet to be fully tapped;
marginal benefits of public investment is declining;
……
8
 Constraints in natural resources and
environment have become prevalent:
 China’s per capita arable land, water, oil and natural
gas is 40%, 25%, 8.3% and 4.1% of world average;
 Environmental pollution has reached an alarming
level;
 Industrial solid waste totals 2 billion tons annually,;
 Extreme weather conditions are happening more
frequently.
9
 Social values and cohesion:
 Inequality is still widespread;
 The widespread of IT and social media has changed
public’s understanding and expectation of public
affairs ;
 How to regain the trust of the public on government?
 How to build social consensus based on diverse
social values?
 How to build social infrastructure based on tradition,
family, communities and social organizations?
10
The historical calling for PA to play a
central role in China’s development
 To a certain degree, China’s development over the
last 30 years has been guided by neoclassic
economics. Now it is the time for public
administration to play its role;
 The reform decision made at the 3rd plenum of the
18th Party Congress announced that the objective of
the reform is to promote the modernization of the
governing institutions and capacities of the
country;
 This is a historical opportunity for PA field to
make its distinctive contribution in China’s future
development, are we ready?
11
II. A Review of PA Education in China
 China’s PA education started in 1930s, but stopped almost
completely from 1952 to early 1980s. It began to revive since
1982.
 Academic programs (1982—2001)
 Undergraduate programs and graduate programs started;
 MPA trial development (2001-2006)
 1998-2001: preparation
 2001: first cohort MPA students were admitted in 24 trial programs
 2003: doctoral program in PA started in 6 universities.
 MPA expansion and development (2006-)
 Teaching evaluation was conducted in 2006
 Further expansion followed.
12
MPA Education Development in China
Number of Eligible MPA Universities
250
223
200
The evaluation of the 2nd batch of 10
eligible universities was accomplished.
147
150
147
223
The evaluation of the 4th 17 and the 5th 46
eligible universities is ongoing.
147
147
The evaluation of the 1st 24 eligible
universities was accomplished.
100
100
83
50
24
24
2001
2002
47
47
2003
2004
100
The evaluation of the 3rd batch of 36 eligible
universities was accomplished.
100
83
The evaluation of the 2nd batch of 13 eligible
universities was accomplished.
0
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
13
MPA Education Development in China
Enrollment
Conferred both
Diploma and
Certificate of Degree
Year
Enrollment only
Conferred
Certificate of Degree
2001
4282
4282
2002
4192
4192
2003
3746
3746
30
2004
5865
5865
1055
2005
6631
6631
2662
2006
8747
8747
3097
2007
9512
9512
3663
2008
9232
9232
6020
2009
10362
10362
7690
2010
7038
3077
10115
8181
2011
6455
6904
13359
8537
2012
7329
8055
15384
8775
2013
7015
9952
16967
10491
2014
7443
11000
18443
10476
Summary
97849
38988
136837
70677
Enrollment
Number of Students
Degrees of
Conferred
14
MPA Education Development in China
Enrollment and Number of Students Degrees of Conferred
20000
18000
16000
14000
Enrollment only Conferred Certificate of Degree
12000
Enrollment Conferred both Diploma and
Certificate of Degree
10000
Enrollment
8000
Number of Students Degrees of Conferred
6000
4000
2000
15
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
The Geographical Distribution of Chinese MPA Colleges
Northwest China
North China
Region
Number of MPA Colleges
North China
52
Northeast China
24
Northeast China
East China
East China
66
South China
43
Southwest China
23
Northwest China
17
Summary
225
Southwest China
South China
16
Professional Graduate Degree Category in China
The
Number
Professional Degree
The Approved Year
The
Number
Professional Degree
The Approved
Year
1
Master of Business Administration
(MBA)
1990
11
Master of Public Health
(MPH)
2001
2
Master of Architecture
(M. Arch)
1992
12
Master of Military
2002
3
Juris Master
(JM)
1995
13
Master of Professional Accounting
(MPAcc)
2004
4
Master of Education
(Ed. M)
1996
14
Master of Science in Physical Education
(MSPE)
2005
5
Master of Engineering
(ME)
1997
15
Master of Fine Arts
(MFA)
2005
6
Master of Medicine
(M.M.)
1998
16
Master of Landscape Architecture
(MLA)
2005
7
agricultural extension master
(MAE)
1999
17
Master of Teaching Chinese to Speakers of
Other Languages (MTCSOL)
2007
8
Master of Veterinary Medicine
(VMM)
1999
18
Master of Translation and Interpreting
(MTI)
2007
9
Master of Public Administration
(MPA)
1999
19
Master of Social Work
(MSW)
2008
10
Master of Stomatological Medicine
(S.M.M)
2000
20
Master of Finance
(MF)
2010
17
Professional Degree Category in China
The
Number
Professional Degree
The Approved The
Year
Number
Professional Degree
The Approved
Year
21
Master of Applied Statistics
(M.A.S.)
2010
31
Master of Urban Planning
(MUP)
2010
22
Master of Taxation
(MT)
2010
32
Master of Forestry
(MF)
2010
23
Master of International Business
(MIB)
2010
33
Master of Nursing Specialist
(MNS)
2010
24
Master of Insurance
(MI)
2010
34
Professional Master of Pharmacy
(M.Pharm)
2010
25
Master of Valuation
(MV)
2010
35
Master of Chinese Materia Medica
(MCMM)
2010
26
Master of Policing
(MP)
2010
36
Master of Tourism Administration
(MTA)
2010
27
Master of Applied Psychology
(MAP)
2010
37
Master of Library and Information Studies
(MLIS)
2010
28
Master of Journalism and Communication
(MJC)
2010
38
Master of Engineering Management
(MEM)
2010
29
Master of Publishing
(MP)
2010
39
Master of Auditing
(MAud)
2011
30
Master of Cultural Heritage and Museology
(M.C.H.M)
2010
40
Master of Chinese Medicine
2015
18
III. New normal and new challenges in PA
education
 The changing (institutional) environment
 Anti-corruption campaign
 Banning of cadres in EMBA; sharp reduction of income;
 Simplifying administration and delegation of authority
 Do more with less
 Strengthening rule of law
 Less room for innovation
 Rising expectation of citizens
 Unsatisfied public becomes “new normal”
 The rise of social media
 Asymmetric amplification
 The rise of MOOC
 Do we really need all these professors?
19
Implications for MPA education
 How do we respond to these changes, or should
we change?
 Should our mission change?
 Does our traditional business model still work?
 Does our teaching method work?
 ……
20
 Mission of MPA education
 Leaders or managers?
 Government officials or NGO managers?
 Generalists or specialists?
 Faculty: interdisciplinary and balance
 Disciplines: political science, economics, law, etc;
 Academic vs. practitioners
 Internationally trained vs. domestically trained;
21
 Curriculum: theories, tools, management skills
 What are the needs of the students?
 How to complement what they have?
 Teaching material
 Text books (domestic vs. translation);
 Other teaching material such as cases
 Academic community: national and international
 learning network (advisory board);
 Quality assurance (certification?);
 Lobbying groups for the benefits of the community
 The need for the employers (the government) to recognize
the value of MPA education!
22
Chinese MPA accreditation: to be or not to be?
 Improve the quality of MPA education is the
paramount concern of the community after the
rapid expansion!
 Ministry of Education has issued many documents and
regulations that we have to follow;
 MPA steering committee has also implemented many
check-points to ensure conformity
 The deeper questions are:
 What is quality? Is it coming from external pressures or
internal calling? Is it outcome driven or process driven?
Where is the right balance between internal vs external,
process vs outcome?
23
The system of Chinese MPA education quality evaluation
1. The scope of
the evaluation
Special Evaluation:
2.Evaluation
organizations
New eligible MPA
National MPA
3.The content of
the evaluation
universities obtained
Education Steering
Check the
4. The methods of
the evaluation
the degree
Committee is
completeness of MPA
Communication
5. Result
handling
authorization for 3
commissioned by
universities training
review, conference
Continue to be
years and above;
Office of Academic
System, including
review, on the spot
authorized, set a
Conformity Evaluation:
Degrees Committee of
teaching staff, talents
investigation
deadline for
Eligible MPA
the State Council to
cultivation, quality
rectification, or be
universities earned the
implement.
assurance, etc.
revoked of degree
degree authorization
for 6 years and above.
Once every six years
24
The system of Chinese MPA education quality evaluation
8. Cooperation
and exchange
1. Education
Environment
7.Teaching
Effects and
Ability Training
6. Teaching
Management
2. Enrollment
Management
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5. Case
Dataset building
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3. Teaching
Staff
11. Curriculum
7.Structure and quantity of
12. Curriculum
resource
1. Subject
foundation
5.System
and
process
of recruiting
teachers
19. Teaching management agencies and
13.
Lectures
and
academic
activities
2.Policy
supporting
22.
Comprehensive
quality
for papers
24.
Government
partnerships
17.
Case
teaching
implementation
students
8. The advisor out of the college
personnel
23.
Education
achievement
and employer
14.
Social
practice
and research
25.
International
communication
3. Funding
support
18.
Case
writing
6.Quantity
and
quality
of practice
recruiting
20.
Teaching
quality
assurance
system
9.Scientific research and
feedback
15.
The
education
about quality and
4. Teaching
facilities
21.
Study
time
in
school
students
10.Teacher training
attitude
16. Teaching evaluation
4. Courses And
Teaching
implementation
25
Chinese MPA accreditation: to be or not to be?
 To be (introduce MPA accreditation)
 Adding another process for MPA programs to pay attention
to their quality;
 Opportunities for reflection and exchanges
 Providing quality information to potential students
 Not to be (do not introduce MPA accreditation)
 There are already too many process-based hurdles, it will
only divert our attention to superficial things;
 It will dampen innovation and diversification in MPA
education, which are really needed given the vast regional
and institutional differences;
 The market signal role is limited since most MPA students
already have a job and they pay more attention to the
reputation of university than to the program.
26
Thank you!
27
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