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HERE.
Chapter 30, Sections 2,3.
The Industrial Revolution and
Growth of Modern Nations
The Sun King- Louis XIV of France (1643-1715)
compared himself to the sun.
• Everyone in France
was dependent on him.
He made sure the army
was loyal to him and
expanded his territories
in all directions. the
King’s wars drained the
coffers and when he
died he left France in
debt.
The Scientific Revolution- (1500’s and
1600’s).
• The scientific
method –a stepby-step
approach
emphasizing
experimentation
and observation,
and a reliance
on mathematics.
The Enlightenment- 1700’s philosophers sought
natural laws for human behavior by applying
REASON.
John Locke wrote Two Treatises on Governmentdescribed social contract. The Spirit of Laws by
Montesquieu argued for the separation of powers
The French Revolution
• Revolutionaries tried
and executed King
Louis XVI. France
was declared a
republic.
In 1799 army officer Napoleon Bonaparte gained
control of the government. In 1804 he proclaimed
himself emperor.
He issued Napoleonic Code, keeping many
important rights for the people. He made reforms
to strengthen the French economy.
The Industrial Revolution
Machines replaced hand tools… new sources of
power (steam and electricity) replaced human
and animal power.
The Industrial Revolution began in Britain’s
textiles industry.
Britain had large iron and coal resources, merchants
with lots of capital, an abundant supply of cheap
labor, transportation improvements, and colonies
with raw materials and markets for goods.
Thomas Edison developed the phonograph and
light bulb. Henry Ford introduced the assembly
line. Millions moved to the cities. Working
conditions were lousy.
Workers formed labor unions to work for change.
Unions won the right to organize and used strikes
and other tactics to win better wages, shorter
hours and improved working conditions.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels outlined their
revolution in the Communist Manifesto.
• Socialism called for
the public ownership
of land and means of
production. Marx’s
ideas have found
followers all over the
world and Russia,
China, and Cuba saw
revolutions.
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