Chapter 30, Sections 2,3. The Industrial Revolution and Growth of Modern Nations The Sun King- Louis XIV of France (1643-1715) compared himself to the sun. • Everyone in France was dependent on him. He made sure the army was loyal to him and expanded his territories in all directions. the King’s wars drained the coffers and when he died he left France in debt. The Scientific Revolution- (1500’s and 1600’s). • The scientific method –a stepby-step approach emphasizing experimentation and observation, and a reliance on mathematics. The Enlightenment- 1700’s philosophers sought natural laws for human behavior by applying REASON. John Locke wrote Two Treatises on Governmentdescribed social contract. The Spirit of Laws by Montesquieu argued for the separation of powers The French Revolution • Revolutionaries tried and executed King Louis XVI. France was declared a republic. In 1799 army officer Napoleon Bonaparte gained control of the government. In 1804 he proclaimed himself emperor. He issued Napoleonic Code, keeping many important rights for the people. He made reforms to strengthen the French economy. The Industrial Revolution Machines replaced hand tools… new sources of power (steam and electricity) replaced human and animal power. The Industrial Revolution began in Britain’s textiles industry. Britain had large iron and coal resources, merchants with lots of capital, an abundant supply of cheap labor, transportation improvements, and colonies with raw materials and markets for goods. Thomas Edison developed the phonograph and light bulb. Henry Ford introduced the assembly line. Millions moved to the cities. Working conditions were lousy. Workers formed labor unions to work for change. Unions won the right to organize and used strikes and other tactics to win better wages, shorter hours and improved working conditions. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels outlined their revolution in the Communist Manifesto. • Socialism called for the public ownership of land and means of production. Marx’s ideas have found followers all over the world and Russia, China, and Cuba saw revolutions.