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Module 5
CGE TRAINING MATERIALS MITIGATION ASSESSMENT
MODULE F
Reporting Mitigation in National
Communications and Biennial Update Reports
3.1
Module Objectives and Expectations
1. Objective: Provide participants with an overview of
how to report on Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in
National Communications and biennial reports
including:
– Reporting commitments
– Suggestions for reporting formats and approaches.
2. Expectations: Participants will have a broad but
sound understanding of how to report on GHG
mitigation in National Communications and biennial
reports.
2
D.2
3.2
Module Outline
1. Reporting Commitments and Guidelines
2. Suggestions for Reporting (National
Communications)
3
3.3
MODULE F1
Reporting Commitments and Guidelines
4
3.4
6.4
Reporting Commitments - Convention
• Article 4.1 of the Convention requires each Party to:
– Formulate, implement, publish and regularly update national or,
where appropriate, regional programmes containing measures
to mitigate climate change
• Article 12.1 the Convention requires each Party to
communicate:
– A general description of steps taken or envisaged by the Party
to implement the Convention
– Any other information that the Party considers relevant to the
achievement of the objectives of the Convention.
5
3.5
National Communications and Biennial Reports
• National communications:
– Guidelines for Non-Annex I countries adopted in 2002
(decision 17/CP.8)
• Biennial reports:
– Guidelines for Non-Annex I countries adopted in 2011
(decision 2/CP.17, Annex III).
6
3.6
Guidelines for National Communications Objectives
• Principal objectives:
– To assist non-Annex (NAI) Parties in meeting their reporting
requirements
– To encourage the presentation of information in a consistent,
transparent, comparable and flexible manner
– To facilitate the presentation of information on support required
for the preparation of national communications
– To serve as policy guidance to the operating entity of the
financial mechanism of the Convention, for the timely provision
of financial support needed by NAI Parties
– To ensure that the Conference of Parties (COP) has sufficient
information to carry out its responsibility for assessing the
implementation of the Convention by Parties.
7
3.7
Guidelines for National Communications - Scope
Scope:
• National greenhouse gas (GHG) Inventory
• A general description of steps taken or
envisaged by the Party to implement the
Convention
• Any other information that the Party considers
relevant to the achievement of the objective of
the Convention and suitable for inclusion in its
communication.
8
3.8
Guidelines – National Circumstances
• NAI Parties should provide a description of their
national and regional development priorities,
objectives and circumstances, on the basis of
which they will address climate change (para.3
of annex to decision 17/CP.8)
• Description of existing institutional arrangements
relevant to the preparation of their national
communications on a continuous basis (para.5)
9
3.9
Guidelines – General Description of Steps
• Each NAI Party shall…communicate to the COP a
general description of steps taken or envisaged by
the Party to implement the Convention, taking into
account its common but differentiated responsibilities
and its specific national and regional development
priorities, objectives and circumstances (para.25)
• NAI Parties may provide information on programmes
containing measures to mitigate climate change by
addressing anthropogenic emission by sources and
removals by sinks of all GHGs not controlled by the
Montreal Protocol... (para.26).
10
3.10
Guidelines (cont.) – Mitigation Measures
• Each Party shall provide information on … steps
taken or envisaged for formulating,
implementing, publishing and regularly updating
national and, where appropriate, regional
programmes containing measures to mitigate
climate change…and any other information they
consider to be relevant…(para.37)
11
3.11
Guidelines (cont.) - Methodological Approaches
• Based on national circumstances, NAI Parties
are encouraged to use whatever methods are
available and appropriate in order to formulate
and prioritize programmes containing measures
to mitigate climate change... (para.38)
• In their assessment of these programmes on
various sectors of the economy, NAI Parties may
use the appropriate technical resources
(para.39)
12
3.12
Guidelines for Preparation of Biennial Update Reports
by Non-Annex I Parties
• Objectives include:
– To encourage the presentation of information in a consistent,
transparent, complete, accurate and timely manner, taking into
account specific national and domestic circumstances;
– To enable enhanced reporting by NAI Parties on mitigation
actions and their effects, needs and support received, in
accordance with their national circumstances, capacities
and respective capabilities, and the availability of support;
– To provide policy guidance to an operating entity of the financial
mechanism for the timely provision of financial support needed
by developing country Parties in order to meet the agreed full
costs of preparing their biennial update reports;
– To facilitate the presentation of information on finance,
technology and capacity-building support needed and received,
including for the preparation of biennial update reports.
13
3.13
Biennial Reports - Scope
• Provide an update to the most recently submitted
national communication in the following areas:
– National circumstances and institutional arrangements
– National GHG inventory
– Information on mitigation actions and their effects,
including associated methodologies and assumptions
– Constraints and gaps, and related financial, technical and
capacity needs, including a description of support needed and
received
– Information on the level of support received to enable the
preparation and submission of biennial update reports
– Information on domestic measurement reporting and verification
– Any other information the Party considers relevant to achieve
objectives of the Convention.
14
3.14
Biennial Reports – Mitigation Reporting
• For each mitigation action or group of mitigation actions…provide
the following information to the extent possible:
– Name and description of the mitigation action, including information on the
nature of the action, coverage (i.e. sectors and gases), quantitative goals
and progress indicators
– Information on methodologies and assumptions
– Objectives of the action and steps taken or envisaged to achieve that action
– Information on the progress of implementation of the mitigation actions and
the underlying steps taken or envisaged, and the results achieved, such as
estimated outcomes (metrics depending on type of action) and estimated
emissions reductions, to the extent possible
– Information on international market mechanisms.
• Parties should provide information on the description of domestic
measurement, reporting and verification arrangements.
15
3.15
Timing of Submission of Reporting
• NAI Parties shall submit:
– National communications every four years and,
– Biennial update reports every two years, either as:
• A summary of parts of their national communication in the year
when national communication is submitted, or,
• A stand-alone update report
• NAI Parties, consistent with their capabilities and
level of support provided for reporting, should submit
their first biennial update report by December 2014.
• Least developed country (LDC) Parties and small
island developing States may submit biennial
update reports at their discretion.
16
3.16
Conclusion – Reporting
• Mitigation assessments and reporting form an
important part of Parties’ national communications
on climate change
• They are read both by the international scientific
community and by national and international
policy makers
• They therefore need both a high level of
scientific rigor and a high level of clarity and
comprehensibility.
17
3.17
MODULE F2
Suggestions for Reporting (National Communications)
18
3.18
General Reporting Suggestions
• National communications:
– Summarize the main findings of mitigation assessment,
e.g. by scenario, sector, and strategy
– Present mitigation options considered, and how national
objectives and circumstance were taken into account
– Describe overall assessment methodology
– Explain scenario definitions, particularly how reference or
business as usual (BAU) scenario is defined
– Discuss the uncertainties associated with findings, along with
suggestions for future assessments.
• Biennial reports:
– Draw upon best practices in national communications and
other published national reports and analyses.
19
3.19
Mitigation Reporting – Example Headings
• Introduction and context
• Description of baseline and mitigation scenarios
– Methodologies, data sources, assumptions, results
(energy, GHG emissions, other impacts)
• Mitigation initiatives planned or underway,
including supportive legislation and programmes
• Non-quantified/assessed strategies such as
awareness-raising efforts.
20
3.20
Scenario Definitions, Data and Assumptions
•
•
•
Reporting on scenarios should describe:
–
How the baseline scenario(s) was framed (e.g. inclusion or exclusion of recent policies)
–
How the mitigation scenario(s) was framed (e.g. technology focused, examining all measures
up to some specified cost level, etc.)
–
Any sensitivity analyses that were conducted.
Reporting on data and assumptions can include:
–
Macroeconomic and demographic variables (population, GDP, urbanization, etc.)
–
Fuel price assumptions
–
Discount rates
–
Activity levels and energy intensities (describe base year and projections)
–
Major assumptions in each sector
–
Factors and assumptions used in emissions calculations.
Supplementary documentation or reports may be appropriate for more
detailed information.
21
3.21
Key Assumptions for Scenario Projections: Example from
Rwanda’s 2nd National Communication
• Documentation of macroeconomic variables used in
scenario analysis: annual growth rates and projections
for baseline and mitigation scenarios.
22
Suggestions for Reporting Quantitative Results
• Follow international scientific practices for
documentation and referencing of data sources
• Specify units consistently, for example:
– Expressing all GHG emissions results in metric
tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2eq) can simplify
comparison across gases, sectors and countries
– Use of standard energy units (e.g. GJ, GWh, TOE)
can simplify understanding across national
communications
• Back up charts with numeric tables for clarity.
23
3.23
Options for Displaying Emissions Results
• Charts can provide important visual tools for conveying
mitigation findings. Options include, among others:
• Charts for individual scenarios and indicators, e.g.
baseline GHG emissions over time
– Easiest to create and interpret
• “Jaws/Wedge” charts
– Enables presentation of baseline and mitigation scenario results,
along with emissions reductions (by sector, strategy, or other
category) in a single chart
• “Waterfall” charts
– Displays and explains incremental emissions benefits for individual
strategies.
24
3.24
Example Chart: Emissions by Sector in a Mitigation
Scenario and Emissions Avoided vs. a Baseline Scenario
Baseline
emissions
avoided
25
3.25
Example of “Jaws/Wedge” Chart
26
3.26
Example of Waterfall Chart:
Effects of behavioural changes on GHG emissions
28
3.28
Example of Mitigation Options Considered
29
3.29
Examples of Cost Tables and Curves
Breakdown of costs for a
mitigation option under two
scenarios (2010-2030)
Marginal
abatement
cost curve
example
(2020)
30
3.30
Other Suggestions for Reporting in National
Communications
• If assessed, present findings for:
– Macroeconomic impacts of the mitigation scenarios on the wider
economy
– Other social and environmental indicators.
• Discuss barriers and needs:
– Discuss any barriers to implementing the envisaged mitigation
options and the types of policies (national and international) that
could help implement the identified mitigation options
– Identify capacity-building needs for the identification, evaluation
and implementation of mitigation policies and measures
– Identify long-term needs for education and building public
awareness on climate change issues.
31
3.31
Excerpts from Mitigation Chapters
• Some national communications submitted to date include the
following mitigation policies and measures:
• Bhutan:
 Constitutional mandate to maintain 60% of land under forest cover
at all times
 Expansion of installed hydropower capacity to 10,000 MW by 2020
 A strategy to maintain carbon neutral status is under development.
• Iran:
 Increase energy efficiency of end-use sectors (demand side)
at the rate of 2% per year until 2025
 Increase the share of compressed natural gas (CNG) in transport
from 2.5% in 2007 to 25% in 2025 at the rate of 1.25% per year
 Increase the share of natural gas in the industry sector from 59.4%
in 2007 to 82% in 2025 at the constant rate of 1.8% per year (Iran).
32
3.32
Excerpts from Mitigation Chapters
Status of implementation of the some of the mitigation actions, South Africa
Potential mitigation actions
Status of implementation
Financial measures
• Imposition of carbon tax
• Levy on electricity generated from fossil fuel already
in place
• Carbon tax on new vehicles already implemented
• Universal carbon tax under consideration
Emissions trading
Discussion paper under development
Energy sector
• Introduction of tax rebate for savings as a result of
• Support measures for mitigation actions in
energy sector
energy efficiency
• Subsidy to promote installation of solar water heaters
• Support for use of energy efficient lighting
33
3.33
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