Chapter 3 - United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

by user


human rights






Chapter 3 - United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
Developing Gender Statistics
Draft manual
Gerry Brady
Central Statistics Office
UNECE Gender Statistics
October 6-8, 2008
Presentation overview
• This presentation gives a quick review of the
contents of the draft gender statistics manual
• It contains extracts from the manual to give a
flavour of the approach taken
Chapter overview
What is gender statistics and gender analysis
Why do we need gender statistics (GS)
How to produce GS: General issues
Selected topics
Making it happen
Improving the use of GS
Chapter 1 - What
1.2 Importance of a gender concern in statistics
1.3 Intersection with other social relations
1.4 Gender Statistics topics
1.5 Making gender visible in statistics
1.6 Gender equality
Chapter 2 - Why
2.2 Importance of gender statistics (GS)
2.3 Supporting policy development
2.4 Tools for using GS in the policy process
Chapter 3 - How
3.2 Data sources
3.3 Measurement issues
3.4 Time use surveys
3.5 Measuring minority groups
3.6 Measuring social exclusion
Chapter 4 - Topics
4.1 Employment
4.2 Entrepreneurship
4.3 Agriculture
4.4 Violence
4.5 Health
Chapter 5 – Making it happen
5.1 Dynamics of getting started
5.2 Building alliances
5.3 Top management
5.4 Develop funding
5.5 Legislation
5.6 Defining program
5.7 Organisation of the GS program
Chapter 6 – Improving the use
6.1 Special applications and analysis
6.2 Marketing
6.3 Dissemination
6.4 UNECE GS database and website
Chapter 1 – What - Definition
• Gender statistics is an area of statistics which
cuts across the traditional fields
• to identify, produce and disseminate statistics
that reflect
• the realities of the lives of women and men
• and policy issues relating to gender.
Chapter 1 – What - Synthesis
• Equal pay for work of equal value. This is the
most widespread use of the concept of gender
equality. It is the simplest and best
understood meaning of the concept of gender
• There are several further nuances on the
concept of gender equality, including equal
opportunities and equity.
Chapter 2 – Why – Evidence base
• Gender statistics provide the basis to assess
differences in the situations of women and
men and how conditions are changing or not
• In this way gender statistics raise
consciousness and provide the impetus for
public debate and change.
Chapter 2 – Why - Policy
• The interconnection between gender
relations/policies and wider social issues is
recognised prominently in the Platform for Action:
• ... The advancement of women and the achievement
of equality between women and men are a matter of
human rights and a condition for social justice and
should not be seen in isolation as a women's issue.
They are the only way to build a sustainable, just and
developed society.
Chapter 2 – Why – New tools
• Developing effective gender policies requires
the assessment of the impact of both
proposed and existing policies on women and
• New importance has been placed on gender
assessments and on a specific form of such
assessment, gender budgeting.
Chapter 3 – How – Data sources
• A wide range of data sources can be used to
produce gender statistics. These sources can
be grouped into four broad types of national
data collection:
– population censuses
– household sample surveys
– business surveys
– administrative records
Chapter 3 – How - Census
• The census has a unique role in an integrated
statistical system. By collecting data for the
entire population at regular intervals on a
range of topics and for small areas and small
population groups, the census can provide
sample frames and various types of
benchmarks for household sample surveys.
Chapter 3 – How - Modules
• Aims of the 2005 Eurostat LFS module on
reconciliation between work and family life were:
• to establish whether the reasons for persons not
participating in the labour force are connected with a
lack of suitable care services for children and
dependant persons
• to analyse the degree of flexibility offered at work in
terms of reconciliation with family life
• to estimate how far leave of absence is taken to care
for children
Chapter 3 – How – Men & Women
• The 2005 Personal Safety Survey conducted by the
Australian Bureau of Statistics collected information
about experiences of physical and sexual violence, as
well as abuse, harassment and people’s feelings of
safety within the home and the community.
• This was the first national survey on this topic that
obtained information about both women’s and
men’s experiences. The previous survey on this
topic, in 1996, collected information only on the
experiences of women.
Chapter 3 – How - Business
• Business surveys can provide very valuable
information about female and male entrepreneurs
and small business owners or managers, including
the types of businesses they operate and the success
of these businesses.
Chapter 3 – How - Thresholds
• Coverage issues may be a further area for attention,
as many surveys use business size cut-offs. In
developing countries, many women work holdings
with no or only tiny areas of land.
• In order to measure women’s contribution to
agricultural work and to construct a complete picture
of holding types, these very small holdings need to
be identified and covered either in the census or
targeted supplementary surveys.
Chapter 3 – How - Administrative
• Administrative records are an important source of
information for studying gender differences on a
wide range of topics.
• In cases where an administrative record system
operates effectively throughout a country it can
provide frequent data at both national and subnational levels.
Chapter 3 – How - Tracking
• The Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia
compiles justice statistics from 9 regular data
collections that obtain data from administrative
systems. The reporting units for these collections are
public prosecutors offices and courts.
• All criminal offence acts that are stipulated by the
criminal law and other legislation dealing with
criminal offences are observed.
• The aim of the collections is to follow the criminal
offenders through the justice system.
Chapter 3 – How - Concerns
• Appropriate use of administrative data is an
issue to bear in mind. The coverage of an
administrative dataset and the definitions it
uses are subject to discontinuity as policies,
regulations and administrative procedures
change. Breaks in series may be unavoidable
and invisible.
Chapter 3 – How - Inventory
• As part of a policy of developing the statistical
potential of administrative data across
government agencies, the Central Statistics
Office in Ireland undertook an examination of
social and business survey and administrative
data holdings in the main government
Chapter 3 – How - Linkages
• Statistics New Zealand (SNZ) has created
Linked Employer-Employee Data (LEED) to
provide insights into the operation of the
labour market and its relationship to business
performance. LEED draws on administrative
data from the taxation system together with
business data from SNZ’s Business Frame.
• SNZ produces an annual report based on this
linked information.
Chapter 3 – How - Completeness
• Many household instruments use the concept of
household reference person. The relationship of each
household member to this person is recorded.
• A more accurate method for mapping household
structures is to use a matrix which asks for the
relationship of each household member to every
other member. This is the approach recommended
by the Conference of European Statisticians’ (CES) for
the 2010 population censuses (UNECE 2006).
Chapter 3 – How - Matrix
Chapter 3 – How - Users
• User advisory groups can be very useful in
determining the design and data item content of
survey questionnaires, including gender-related
• One relatively low-cost method for testing whether
data item concepts and terminology are appropriate
and relevant for both females and males is through
focus groups. Focus groups are small groups of
people with differing backgrounds that are selected
from the target population for a collection.
Chapter 3 – How - Testing
• Trained methodologists can conduct cognitive
interviews, or pretests, with a variety of potential
respondents to gauge their understanding of the
question. The aim is to ensure that respondents will
understand the question in a manner consistent with
the survey developer’s intent.
• Pilot tests of draft questionnaires are further tools
for ensuring that respondents will be able to supply
the information to be collected and for ensuring the
appropriateness of the data collection method.
Chapter 3 – How - Flexibility
• The success of a collection will depend to a large
extent on the suitability of the collection
methodology. International meetings of gender
experts indicate that there is wide variation across
countries in effective methods of data collection.
These methods include collection of data by
telephone, mail, personal visit, and the web, as well
as in various types of administrative settings.
Chapter 3 – How – Time use
• In its 2003 Time Use Survey, Italy used both
deterministic rules (involving automatic procedures)
and non-automatic rules (applied by a trained staff of
coders) to improve the coding of data collected by
the survey’s daily diaries.
• Before coding, the words used by respondents to
describe their main and parallel activities, activity
locations and modes of transport used were
recorded in the survey processing system, resulting
in a considerable number of strings for each activity.
Chapter 3 – How - Minorities
• Statistics on the situation of women and men
belonging to specific ethnic, religious or national
groups are needed to increase visibility and
understanding of the issues affecting these groups
and the lives of their members.
• Such data are particularly important because gender
issues within minority groups are located at an
intersection that risks being overlooked by those
focusing on gender concerns in general, as well as by
those focusing on minority group concerns.
Chapter 3 – How - Examples
Migration background
• Country of birth
• Region of birth
• Country of birth of
• citizenship
Ethnic & cultural
• Race
• Ethnicity
• Ancestry
• Religion
• Language
Chapter 3 – How – Social exclusion
• Social exclusion generally refers to a situation where
a person does not participate in the normal
relationships and activities available to the majority
of people in the society in which the person lives. It
reflects a lack of connectedness that is multidimensional in nature and shaped by the
communities, social and physical environments in
which they live. It can affect both the quality of life of
individuals and the equity and cohesion of society as
a whole.
Chapter 3 – How - Poverty
• The at-risk-of poverty rate for women was 3 percentage
points higher than that for men in the EU countries.
• Single parent families – typically single mothers - were much
more at risk of poverty and social exclusion than the average.
• Older people, single persons and lone parents were most
likely to spend a high proportion of their disposable income
(close to 60%) on essential items.
• Immigrant women faced particular challenges - their
employment rate in 2005 was 15 percentage points lower
than that of their EU national counterparts.
Chapter 3 – How - Poverty
• Female income from work was increasingly important for the
living standards of the household. Analysis of child poverty
across the EU indicated that child poverty was 3 to 4 times
lower when the mother worked.
• Of 18-24 year olds, women (13%) were less likely than men
(18%) to be not in education or training even though they had
not completed a qualification beyond lower secondary
schooling. The at-risk-of poverty rate was much higher among
these early school leavers.
Chapter 3 – How – Men & Women
• It is important that both female and male perspectives are
taken into account when defining the various measures to be
produced, developing the data items to be collected and
framing questions for respondents to answer.
• Some of the data items used to assess the incidence of
different forms of social exclusion can be quite subjective and
there is considerable scope for gender bias unless particular
care is taken to avoid it.
Chapter 3 – How - Wealth
• In countries where household income is the major
component of economic resources for most households, it is a
key determinant of the economic situation of households.
However it is not the only economic resource available.
• Households that have higher levels of wealth can utilize these
assets to support a higher standard of living. Some countries
produce measures that relate to households having both low
levels of income and low levels of wealth.
Chapter 4 – Topics - Structure
What it is
Why it is important
The value-added of statistics
Implications for data collection
Further reading
Chapter 4 – Topics - Employment
Informal self-employment includes:
• employers in informal enterprises
• own-account workers in informal enterprises
• unpaid family workers (in informal and formal
• members of informal producers’ cooperatives
• own account workers engaged in production of
goods exclusively for own final use by their
Chapter 4 – Topics – Time use
• Time spent on housework: by sex, 2005, Great Britain
Chapter 4 – Topics - Entrepreneurs
• In order to realise the objectives of further implementing the
United Nations global mandate on gender equality by
promoting the economics of gender as a factor of sustained
growth, it is important to incorporate the gender
entrepreneurial dimension in considering all SME and growth
• In order to develop these polices and respond to them there
is a need for a clear understanding of the nature of women’s
and men’s entrepreneurship and for accurate, comparable,
timely and sex disaggregated data on financing, training,
regulatory and legal environment of entrepreneurship.
Chapter 4 – Topics - Coverage
• Systematic underreporting of women farmers’ involvement in
agricultural production has occurred especially when
censuses focused on commercial rather than on communal or
subsistence farming activities and when censuses excluded
peri-urban and urban agricultural activities.
Chapter 4 – Topics – Question set
Has your current partner sometimes behaved violently against
you (over the last 12 months or earlier) , such as:
1. Threatened you with violence?
2. Prevented you from moving or grabbed you?
3. Slapped you?
4. Thrown a hard object at you?
5. Beaten you with a fist or a hard objects, or kicked you?
6. Strangled or tried to strangle you?
7. Shot at you or stabbed or cut you with an edged weapon?
8. Beaten your head against something?
9. Pressured, coerced or tried to coerce you to have sex with him?
10. Behaved violently against you in some other manner?
Chapter 4 – Topics – Death rates
Ireland: Age-Sex specific death rates
Age group
75 and over
per 100,000 population
Females Male/Female ratio
Chapter 4 – Topics – Fatalities
EU fatal accidents at work, 1994-1999
per 1,000 employees
Agriculture, hunting and forestry
Electricity, gas and water supply
Wholesale and retail trade
Hotels and restaurants
Transport, storage and communication
Financial intermediation
Incidence rate
Chapter 4 – Topics – Question set
Which of the following computer related activities have you
already carried out?
• Copying or moving a file or folder
• Using copy and paste tools to duplicate or move information
within a document
• Using basic arithmetic formulas in a spreadsheet
• Compressing files
• Connecting and installing new devices, e.g. a printer
• Writing a computer program using a specialised programming
• None of the above
Chapter 4 – Topics - Attitudes
• The Survey of Canadian Attitudes toward Learning is
conducted in collaboration with the Canadian Council on
Learning to assess Canadians' needs, opinions and knowledge
concerning learning and education. The survey covers four
domains that represent learning themes of current
importance: early childhood learning, structured learning
(elementary, secondary and post secondary), health and
learning, and work-related learning.
Chapter 4 – Topics - Attitudes
• Gender differences are visible as early as second level
education when students begin to specialise in subjects. In
Ireland, only 0.5% of girls took engineering as a higher level
Leaving Certificate examination subject compared to 12.8% of
boys. Boys accounted for more than 90% of candidates in
technical drawing and construction studies at higher level. In
contrast, 31.4% of girls took higher level Home economics
compared to just 3% of boys. The effect of differentiation in
very specialised subjects at this early stage of the education
cycle is likely to be carried into third level education and
employment choices.
Chapter 4 – Topics – Question set
The standard core module for the Demographic and Health Surveys includes
the following five questions in the women’s questionnaire:
- Who usually decides how your husband’s/partner’s earnings will be
used: you, your husband/partner, or you and your husband/partner
- Who usually makes decisions about health care for yourself: you, your
husband/ partner, you and your husband/ partner jointly, or someone
- Who usually makes decisions about making major household
- Who usually makes decisions about making purchases for daily
household needs?
- Who usually makes decisions about visits to your family or relatives?
Ch. 5 – Making it happen - Steps
This section discusses some specific steps and actions that could comprise an
action plan developed to either start or strengthen an existing gender
statistics program. Each individual statistical office, of course, must adapt
these steps to its particular situation. These steps and actions can be
categorized as the following:
Building Alliances and Meeting Customer Needs
Obtaining Top Management Support
Developing Funding
Defining the Program
Organisational Issues
Ch. 5 – Making it happen - Legal
• The type of details that a law on gender statistics should
contain are present in the Italian draft law, which was
approved by the previous Government and re-proposed to be
considered by the current Parliament. This draft law aims to
make visible gender disparities and to ensure equal
readability of data relative to both sexes. The provisions of the
draft law provide precise indications and directives to
producers of statistics as well as identify the areas of interest,
the surveys and their periodicity in order to produce sexdisaggregated data.
Chapter 6 – Improving the use
Chapter 6 – Improving the use
• Women, Work & Poverty
Chapter 6 – Improving the use
Persons 80 & over as % of 65 & over
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