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1 cup
Introduction
 Most cooks use recipes. A recipe
is a list of ingredients that gives
you directions for preparing a
specific food. If you know how
to follow recipes, then you will
be successful in the kitchen.
Who knows! You may
become a famous chef!
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
Introduction
 Successful cooks know:
• How to read a recipe
• Abbreviations
• Measuring Techniques
• Equivalents
• How to Change a Recipe
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What’s in a recipe?
 A formula!
Read the recipe before you cook.
The parts of the recipe tell you:
• Name
• Ingredients
• Equipment
• Directions- Recipe Terms
• Yield (number of servings)
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• Sometimes - Nutritional Analysis
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Parts of a Recipe
Name
What the
recipe is called.
 A recipe usually includes:
Quesadillas
Yield
(Serves 4 - 2 per person)
Number of
servings the
recipe makes.
Equipment
8 flour tortillas
Ingredients
1 cup grated cheese
1. Heat a frying pan over medium heat.
2. Place a tortilla in the pan.
3. Sprinkle 1/4 cup cheese on the tortilla.
4. Cover the cheese with another tortilla.
Directions
Steps you follow
to make the
recipe.
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5. Cook about 1 minute, until brown and crisp. Then
turn the quesadilla over. Cook until the cheese
melts.
6. Place on a serving plate. Cut into pie shaped wedges.
7. Repeat process with remaining ingredients.
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Food products
you need to
make the recipe.
3 Types of Recipe Formats
 Action
 Narrative
 Standard
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ACTION FORM- Starts with action
word step by step
Gelatin Squares
Heat to boiling: 1 1/2 cup fruit juice
Pour into a medium bowl: 1 1/2 cup cold fruit juice
Sprinkle onto cold juice: unflavored gelatin Let stand
Add hot juice.
Stir gelatin.
Pour into 9-inch square pan.
Chill
Cut into 1-inch squares to serve.
Yield
: About 6 dozen
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©
NARRATIVE FORM- paragraph
form
Gelatin Squares
Heat to boiling 1 1/2 cup fruit juice.* Pour1 1/2 cup cold fruit juice
into a medium bowl and sprinkle in 3 envelopes unflavored
gelatin. Let stand 1 minute. Add the hot juice. Stir until gelatin
is completely dissolved. Pour mixture into a 9-inch square pan.
Chill until firm. Cut into 1-inch squares.
Yield: About 6 dozen.
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
STANDARD FORMAT- numerical
order step by step
3 Envelopes unflavored gelatin
Cold fruit juice*
Fruit juice, heated to boiling
Directions
1.Sprinklegelatin over juice in a medium bowl.
2.Let stand1 minute.
3.Addjuice.
4.Stir until gelatin is completely dissolved.
5.Pourinto a pan.
6.Chilluntil firm.
7.Cutinto squares to serve.
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
What’s an Abbreviation?
 Understanding the language of recipes takes
the guesswork out of cooking.
 Abbreviation - The shortened form of a word.
 Abbreviations in measuring units:
• Save space on the cookbook page.
• Make recipes easier to read.
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Name the Abbreviations
 The U.S. uses the English system:
• Teaspoon
• Tablespoon
Tbsp. or T.
• Cup
c.
• Pint
pt.
• Quart
qt.
• Gallon
gal.
• Ounce/fluid ounce
• Pound
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tsp. or t.
©2002 Learning Zone Express
oz./ fl. oz.
lb.
Name the Abbreviations
 Most other countries use
the Metric system:
12
• Milliliter
ml
• Liter
L
• Grams
g
• Kilogram
kg
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Name the Abbreviations
 More abbreviations:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Few grains, dash, pinch
Dozen
Pound
Inch
Second
Minute
Hour
• Degree
• Fahrenheit/Celsius
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f.g.
doz.
lb.
in.
sec.
min.
hr.

F. / C
Abbreviations Pop Quiz
 What do these stand for?
• lb.
•L
• tsp. or t.
•  F.
• qt.
• fl. oz.
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Name That Utensil
 Serving spoons & cups vary in size. Only use
these standard measuring utensils…
Can you name them?
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The Right Measuring Utensil
 What are two ingredients that
you’d measure with when using:
• measuring spoons?
• dry/solid measuring cups?
• a liquid measuring cup?
 Which measuring utensil would you use to
measure each of these ingredients?
•
•
•
•
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1 1/3 cups flour
1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 cup milk
2 tablespoons cooking oil
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Measuring Liquid Ingredients
 Liquid ingredients can include:
• Milk, water, oil, juice, vanilla extract, etc.
 To measure 1/4 cup or more of a
liquid ingredient, use a clear, liquid
measuring cup.
• Place the cup on level surface and read measurements at eye level.
 For smaller amounts use measuring spoons.
• Fill the spoon until a slight dome is visible.
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
Measuring Dry Ingredients
 A standard set of dry/solid measuring cups is
made of four cup sizes.
 What amount does each cup measure?
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Measuring Dry Ingredients
 Dry ingredients can include:
• Flour, sugar, brown sugar, salt, and baking powder.
 To measure 1/4 cup or more of a
dry ingredient use a measuring cup.
• Measuring cups generally come
in 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, and 1 cup sizes.
 To measure less than a 1/4 cup
use a measuring spoon.
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• Measuring spoons generally come in
1/4, 1/2, & 1 teaspoon & 1 tablespoon sizes.
• To measure 1/8 tsp. measure 1/4 tsp.
& then remove half.
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Measuring Dry Ingredients
 Measuring flour:
• Do not pack the flour into the
measuring cup or spoon because you will
end up with more flour. Instead, scoop flour
into the cup and level with a spatula or knife.
 Measuring brown sugar:
• Pack the brown sugar tightly into the measuring cup or spoon.
Once it is packed down, level it with a straight edge or knife.
 Measuring granulated sugar:
• Fill the cup with sugar. Level with the back of a spatula or knife
so that sugar is even with top of measuring cup or spoon.
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Pass the Cup
 Dry/solid measure check-up:
• Which of these amounts is greater? Write the amount.
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1/2 cup
or
3/4 cup
1/4 cup
or
1/3 cup
1/4 cup
or
2 Tbsp.
1/2 cup
or
1/4 cup
1/4 cup
or
3 tsp.
1 1/3 cup
or
1 1/4 cup
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Measuring Solid Ingredients
 Sticks of butter and margarine
have measurements marked
on the wrapper.
• One stick = 1/2 cup or 8 tablespoons
 Measure solid fats, such as shortening or
peanut butter, in a dry measuring cup.
• Pack it into the cup and level it with a spatula. Then use a
plastic scraper to remove it from the cup.
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Measuring Techniques Checklist
Can you do these things?








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3/4 cup sugar
1 cup flour
1 Tbsp. water
1 tsp. salt
1 Tbsp. flour
1 1/3 cups water
1/4 cup brown sugar
Ingredients & tools
properly cleaned and
stored.
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 Demonstrate proper measuring
techniques by completing the
checklist.
Name:___________________
Checked by:______________
Measuring Just With Spoons
 This chart shows some amounts that you’ll often see in
recipes. And it shows how to measure those amounts
with measuring spoons.
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1 Tbsp.
1 tsp. + 1 tsp. + 1 tsp.
3/4 tsp.
1/4 tsp. + 1/4 tsp. + 1/4 tsp.
or 1/2 tsp. + 1/4 tsp.
1/8 tsp.
half of 1/4 tsp.
1/8 cup
1 Tbsp. + 1 Tbsp.
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Basic Equivalents
 Equivalents are amounts that are equal to each other.
• They are useful when you must alter or change a recipe
to serve more or less people than the recipe yields.
 Dry/Liquid equivalents:
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• Pinch or Dash
• 1 Tablespoon
=
=
less than 1/8 teaspoon
3 teaspoons
• 1/4 cup
• 1/3 cup
• 1/2 cup
=
=
=
4 Tablespoons
5 Tablespoons & 1 teaspoon
8 Tablespoons
• 3/4 cup
• 1 cup
=
=
12 Tablespoons
16 Tablespoons
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Basic Equivalents
 To help you remember:
1 Tablespoon = 3 t e a spoons
There are 3 letters in the word tea and 3 teaspoons in a tablespoon.
1/4 c. = 4 Tbsp.
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
Basic Equivalents
 1 fluid ounce = 2 Tablespoons
 8 ounces = 1 cup
 16 ounces = 1 pound
1 pint = 2 cups
1 quart = 2 pints = 4 cups
1 gallon = 4 quarts = 8 pints = 16 cups
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
Basic Equivalents
 To help you
remember:
A formula
2 c. = 1 pt.
2 pt. = 1 qt.
4 qt. = 1 gal.
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
Equivalents at the Store
 At the store, many foods are sold by the pint or by
the quart. Many recipes will ask you to measure
those foods by the cup.
 Here is a helpful guide:
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• 1 cup
=
1/2 pint
• 2 cups
=
1 pint
• 4 cups
=
2 pints
• 4 cups
=
1 quart
• 4 quarts
=
1 gallon
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Equivalents at the Store
 Answer the following questions with one of these amounts:
1/2 pint
1 pint
1 quart
What size container will you buy if. . .
1. A recipe for salad calls for 2 cups of cottage cheese.?
2. A recipe for a fruit dessert calls for 1 cup of whipping cream?
3. You need 4 cups of milk for a pudding?
4. You need 2 cups of sour cream to make a dip?
5. A recipe for fruit salad says to mix 8 ounces of yogurt with
fruit?
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
Equivalents at the Store
 Now that you know how many cups make up 1/2 pint,
1 pint, and 1 quart, try to figure out how many ounces
are in these amounts:
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• 1 cup
=
___ oz.
• 1/2 pint
=
___ oz.
• 1 pint
=
___ oz.
• 1 quart
=
___ oz.
• 1 gallon
=
___ oz.
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Basic Equivalents Pop Quiz
1. 1. 1 pint
=
____ cups
2. 2. 1 gallon
=
____ quarts
3. 3. 1 quart
=
____ cups
4. 4. 1 cup
=
____ tablespoons
5. 5. 1 tablespoon
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=
____ teaspoons
Putting Cups Together
 Useful amounts to know:
•
•
•
•
•
•
2/3 cup
3/4 cup
1/8 cup
1 cup
1 cup
1 cup
=
=
=
=
=
=
1/3 cup + 1/3 cup
1/2 cup + 1/4 cup
half of 1/4 cup
1/2 cup + 1/2 cup
1/3 cup + 1/3 cup + 1/3 cup
1/4 cup + 1/4 cup + 1/4 cup + 1/4 cup
 How would you measure these amounts?
• 1 1/4 cups
• 2/3 cup
• 3/4 cup
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How Do You Measure Up?
 This recipe for Chocolate Chip Cookies yields 3 dozen.
You need to make 6 dozen. Write down the measurements
you would use to double this recipe. Use correct abbreviations.
Chocolate Chip Cookies
Yields 3 dozen.
2 1/4 cup flour
1 teaspoon baking soda
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 cup margarine
3/4 cup sugar
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
3/4 cup brown sugar
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
2 eggs
2 cup chocolate chips
How Do You Measure Up?
 Your Grandma’s recipe for Chocolate Cake makes a
large cake so you want to make only half of a cake.
Write down the new measurements you would need to
make half this recipe. Use correct abbreviations.
Chocolate Cake
2 cups sugar
1/2 cup butter
2 eggs
1 cup buttermilk
2 1/2 cups cake flour
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2 teaspoons baking soda
2 chocolate squares
1/2 teaspoon salt
2/3 cup warm water
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
How Do You Measure Up?
BONUS
 What is half of 2/3 cup?
 If a recipe calls for one egg and you want to cut
the recipe in half, how might you half an egg?
Answer: 1 large egg = 1/4 cup.
Crack egg into bowl and mix with
fork. Pour out approximately 1/2
or 2 tablespoons of egg.
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
You’re the Expert
 Jenny is throwing a surprise birthday party for her best
friend Katie. She has decided to make Katie’s favorite
dish, meat loaf. There will be a total of 40 people at the
party. Answer the following questions:
• The recipe says it serves 8 people. By what number should Jenny
multiply each ingredient to make enough meat loaf for everyone?
• The recipe calls for 1 1/2 lbs. of ground beef. How much ground
beef will Jenny need to make enough meat loaf for everyone?
• Jenny will be serving milk with the meal. She plans on using 8 oz.
glasses. How many gallons of milk does she need to make sure
everyone gets one glass of milk?
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©2002 Learning Zone Express
Kitchen Math Quiz
Write down the answers to the following questions.
1.
1 tablespoon is equivalent to __ teaspoons
and 1 fluid ounce is equivalent to __ tablespoons.
a.
b.
c.
d.
2.
3, 4
4, 1
3, 2
2, 3
How would you measure the following amounts?
a.
b.
c.
d.
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a.
b.
c.
d.
a.
b.
c.
d.
2/3 cup
1/8 cup
1 2/3 cup
2 3/4 cups
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Kitchen Math Quiz
3.
The number of servings a recipe
makes is called its ________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
4.
serving size
yield
equivalent
supply
Match the term on the left with the appropriate
abbreviation on the right.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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a.
b.
c.
d.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
pounds
cups
tablespoons
teaspoons
ounces
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a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
c.
Tbsp.
lb.
tsp.
oz.
Kitchen Math Quiz
5.
True of False?
a. a. Liquids should always be measured at eye level.
b. b. When measuring flour you should scoop it into a dry
measuring cup, pack it, and level it with a straight edge.
c. c. One stick of butter is equal to 1 cup.
6.
Look at each of the following measurements and
determine which amount is larger:
a.
b.
c.
d.
40
a.
b.
c.
d.
1/3 cup or 1/4 cup
1 pound or 18 ounces
1 tablespoon or 4 teaspoons
1 pint or 3 cups
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Applying What You Know
Choose one of the following assignments to complete outside of class.
 Create a worksheet of math word problems based on
kitchen measurements. Be sure to create an answer
sheet. Trade worksheets with a classmate and grade
each other’s work.
 Create new recipe cards that double and cut in half a
favorite recipe. For extra credit make the recipe and
evaluate the results.
 Create an easy-to-read poster of common
abbreviations and basic equivalents. Be sure to
include visuals and display accurate information.
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Exploring the Web
 Here are some suggested sites you and
your class may want to investigate for
more information on measuring:
• http://www.applejournal.com/ref01.htm
– Basic kitchen measurements and abbreviations.
• http://www.nursehealer.com/Recipes6.htm
– Measurements and substitutions.
 Teachers: Please note that web sites are constantly changing and being
updated. You may need to revise this list.
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