CHAPTER 16 Religion and Science 1450–1750 PROTESTANT REFORMATION In what ways did the Protestant Reformation transform European society, culture, and politics? In what ways did the Protestant Reformation transform European society, culture, and politics? • Created a permanent schism within Catholic Christendom. • Gave some kings and princes a justification for their own independence from the Church and an opportunity to gain the lands and taxes previously held by the Church. • In what ways did the Protestant Reformation transform European society, culture, and politics? • • Provided the urban middle classes a new religious legitimacy for their growing role in society. • • Common people's expression of opposition to the whole social order. • • Less impact on the lives of women, although it did stimulate female education and literacy, even if there was little space for women to make use of that education outside the family. • society, culture, and politics? • • Religious difference led to sectarian violence, to war, and ultimately to religious coexistence. • • Successful challenge to the immense prestige and power of the pope and the established Church encouraged a skeptical attitude toward authority and tradition. • • Fostered religious individualism as people were encouraged to read and interpret the scriptures themselves and to seek salvation without the mediation of the Church. •And why could people now READ books? Because of the full scale implementation of the Pringing Press. DO NOW: Why did Christianity take hold in some places more than others? The Protestant Reformation The major goal of humanism in northern Europe was to reform Christendom. Martin Luther’s religious reforms led to the emergence of Protestantism. Christian humanists believed in the ability of human beings to reason and improve themselves. They wanted to reform the Catholic Church. This reform would occur through developing inner piety, or religious feeling, based on studying the works of Christianity – not rules & rituals. Erasmus and Christian Humanism The best known Christian humanist was Desiderius Erasmus. He developed what he called “the philosophy of Christ,” meant to show people how to live good lives on a daily basis rather than how to achieve salvation. He did not wish to break from the church, just reform it. In his 1509 work The Praise of Folly, he especially criticized the monks. “I do not accept the authority of popes and councils… my conscience is captive to the word of God. …Here I stand and I can not do otherwise. God help me. Amen.” – Martin Luther April 18th, 1521 Between 1450 and 1520 a series of popes failed to meet the Church’s spiritual needs. They were more concerned with the political interests of the Papal States. Julius II, the “warriorpope,” even led armies against his enemies. Many people were disgusted with him and the Catholic Church. Church Corruption Erasmus and Christian Humanism Indulgences Church officials seemed ignorant of their spiritual duties, especially instructing the faithful on achieving: salvation –acceptance into Heaven. As a result, obtaining salvation became almost mechanical; by collecting relics, for example. Venerating a saint could gain an indulgence–release from all or part of punishment for sin– according to the Church of the time. •Johann Tetzel’s Slogan: •“As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs!” Martin Luther was a monk and professor at the University of Wittenberg, where he lectured on the Bible. Through his study of the Bible, Luther came to reject the Catholic teaching that both faith and good works were necessary for salvation. He believed human deeds were powerless to affect God and that salvation was through faith alone. The Edict of Worms made Luther an outlaw in the empire. His books were to be burned and Luther delivered to the emperor. Luther’s local ruler, however, protected him. Lutheranism became the first Protestant faith. The Reformation in England Not religion but politics brought about the English Reformation. King Henry VIII wanted to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, whom he thought could not give him a male heir. The pope was unwilling to annul (declare invalid) his marriage, however, and Henry turned to England’s church courts. The archbishop of Canterbury ruled that Henry’s marriage to Catherine was null and void. “I need a divorce!" (and a low carb diet) The Reformation in England Henry then married Anne Boleyn, who was crowned queen & who gave birth to a girl! The child later would become Queen Elizabeth I. Erasmus and Christian Humanism Anne Boleyn •In Catherine of Aragon’s court caught the ‘eye’ of Henry VIII •Could not produce male heir & • Anne Executed! •! Erasmus and Christian Humanism Henry was a very busy man. But the break from Rome and the Catholic church was centuries in the making. The land that the Catholic church "owned" on English soil bothered some Englishmen. The taxes that England had to pay to Rome did not seem right to some Englishmen. So this reformation was not totally due to Henry's marriage needs, but it was accerlated by it.