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31d Describe the development of Chinese civilization under the

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31d Describe the development of Chinese civilization under the
31a Describe how geographic features and cultural diffusion
affected the development of Ancient Chinese River Valley
Civilizations.
31d Describe the development of Chinese civilization under the
Zhou, Qin, & Han Dynasties
31e Explain the impact of Confucianism on Chinese culture
including the Examination System, the Mandate of Heaven, the
status of peasants, gender status, the status of merchants, & the
patriarchal family & the diffusion of Chinese culture to Southeast
Asia, Japan, & Korea
• Two Rivers:
– Huang He
– Yangtze
•
•
•
•
Plateau of Tibet
Gobi Desert
Mongolian Plateau
Himalayan Mountains
• Flooding of Huang He
– Devastating flood. . . .
• “China’s Sorrow”
– Loess (yellow silt)
• Geographic isolation
– Trade within their area.
• Lack of natural barriers
– Under constant invasion
• Only 10% of China’s land
is suitable for farming.
2100-1700 B.C.
Xia Dynasty emerges as 1st Chinese dynasty
• Yu, the leader, designed flood control
projects to reduce flood damage  helped
more permanent settlements grow
• Yu also designed irrigation projects that
allowed farmers to grow surplus food to
support cities
1700-1027 B.C.
Shang Dynasty
• First to leave written records
• Fought many wars
• Lived in walled cities (like Sumerians) for
protection
1700-1027 B.C.
Shang Dynasty Culture
•
Family
–
–
–
•
Central to Chinese society
Respect for one’s parents
Women were treated as inferiors
Social Classes
–
–
•
Sharply divided between nobles and peasants
Ruling class of warrior-nobles headed by a king
Religious Beliefs
–
–
Spirits of family ancestors could bring good fortune or
disaster to living family members
Polytheistic – belief in many Gods.
Zhou Dynasty
1027 B.C. - Zhou begin rule
• Claimed authority to take over by declaring
the Mandate of Heaven
– Rulers had divine approval to be rulers, but a
wicked or foolish king could lose the Mandate of
Heaven and so lose the right to rule
Zhou Dynasty
The Dynastic Cycle
• Floods, riots, etc. could be signs that the ancestral spirits were
displeased with a king’s rule
• In that case, the Mandate of Heaven might pass to another
noble family
• This pattern of rise, decline, & replacement of dynasties was
known as the Dynastic Cycle
Zhou Dynasty
Territorial Control – How?
• Feudalism
– Political system where nobles, or lords,
are granted the use of lands that
legally belong to the king
– In return, nobles owe loyalty & military
service to the king & protection to the
people living on their estates
Zhou Dynasty
Improvements in Technology & Trade
• Roads & canals built  stimulated
trade & agriculture
• Coined money introduced  further
improved trade
• Blast furnaces developed 
produced cast iron
Zhou Dynasty
226 B.C. Decline & Fall
• Nomads from west & north sacked
capital & MURDERED the monarch
• Zhou kings fled, but were powerless to
control noble families
• Lords fought neighboring lords
– As their power grew, they claimed to be
kings in their own territory
While Zhou was in decline…
Rise of Chinese Philosophies
5 Basic Social Relationships:
Confucianism
• Ruler & Subject
• Founder:
– Confucius (551-479 B.C.)
• Ideas About Social Order:
– Emphasis on family
– Respect for elders (filial piety)
• Father & Son
• Husband & Wife
• Older Brother & Younger
Brother
• Friend & Friend
• Ideas About Government:
– Emphasis on education
• Could change a commoner into a gentleman
– Trained civil service essential for good gov’t
Rise of Chinese Philosophies
Daoism
• Founder:
– Laozi
• Ideas About Order & Harmony:
– Understanding nature is key to order
& harmony
– Natural Order more important than
Social Order
• Ideas About A Universal Force:
– Universal Force called Dao (aka “The
Way”) guides all things
Rise of Chinese Philosophies
Legalism
• Founders:
– Li Si, Hanfeizi
• Ideas About Social Order:
– Efficient & powerful gov’t is key to social order
• Ideas About Government
– Gov’t should control ideas & use law & harsh
punishment to restore harmony
– Rewards for people who carry out their duties
well
Qin Dynasty
221 B.C. Shi Huangdi Assumes Control
• Established autocracy – gov’t
that has unlimited power &
uses it in an arbitrary (random)
manner
• “Strengthen trunk, weaken
branches”
– Forced noble families to live in
capital under his suspicious gaze
– Carved China into 36
administrative districts & sent Qin
officials to control them
Qin Dynasty
Shi Huangdi Begins Building Great Wall
• Built to prevent invasions from N & W
• Enemies would have to gallop halfway to
Tibet to get around it
Han Dynasty - “Golden Age”
206-195 B.C. Liu Bang
• Established centralized gov’t
• Lowered taxes
• Eased harsh punishments
• Brought stability & peace to China
Han Dynasty - “Golden Age”
195-180 B.C. Empress Lü
• Maintained control by naming one infant
after another as emperor & acted as
regent for each infant
Han Dynasty - “Golden Age”
141-87 B.C. Wudi
• Expanded Chinese empire by
conquering lands & making
allies of the enemies of his
enemies (the enemy of my
enemy is my friend)
• Set up civil service system of
training & examinations for
those who wanted gov’t
careers (Examination System
–Confucian idea)
Han Dynasty - “Golden Age”
Paper Invented
• Increased availability of books
• Spread education
• Expansion of gov’t bureaucracy – records
became easier to read & store
Han Dynasty - “Golden Age”
Agricultural Improvements
• Collar Harness
• Improved Plow
• Wheelbarrow
• Watermills
• Improved Iron Tool
Ability to Feed a
Large Population
Population
Growth
Fall of Han Dynasty & Their Return
Gap Between Rich & Poor
• Customs allowed the rich to gain more
wealth at the expense of the poor
Fall of Han Dynasty & Their Return
45 B.C.-24 A.D. Wang Mang
• Minted new money
• Established public granaries to
feed poor
• Tried to redistribute land from
the rich to the poor
• A.D. 11 – Great flood left
thousands dead & millions
homeless
– Revolts broke out – Wang Mang
assassinated
Later Han
24 A.D.-220 A.D.
• Encouraged Silk Road trade with west
• Disintegrated in 3 rival kingdoms
Under the Han Dynasty,
the structure of Chinese
society was clearly
defined. At the top was
the emperor, who was
considered semi-divine.
Next came kings and
governors, both
appointed by the
emperor. They governed
with the help of state
officials, nobles, and
scholars.
Peasant farmers came
next. Their production of
food was considered vital
to the existence of the
empire. Artisans and
merchants were below
them.
Near the bottom were
the soldiers, who guarded
the empire's frontiers. At
the bottom were
enslaved persons, who
were usually conquered
peoples.
Social Hierarchy
Family Organization
• Patriarchal
– Headed by the eldest male (*this was the same way in
India)
• Role of Women
– Limited roles within the family at home & on the farm
• Matriarchal
– South India during the Gupta era was matriarchal (headed
by the mother rather than father) - property and
sometimes thrones were passed through the female line.
31c Explain the development & impact of Hinduism &
Buddhism on India & subsequent diffusion of Buddhism
Hinduism
• FOUNDER:
– No Founder
– Collection of religious beliefs
that developed over
centuries
Hinduism
• WHO BELIEVERS WORSHIP:
– Brahma (The Creator)
– Vishnu (The Protector)
– Shiva (The Destroyer)
• *There are many other gods
Hinduism
• LEADERS:
– Guru
– Brahmin priest
Hinduism
• SACRED TEXTS:
– Vedas
• 4 collections of prayers, magical spells, and instructions
for performing rituals
– Upanishads
• Teachers comments in response to the Vedic hymnswritten as dialogue
Hinduism
• BASIC BELIEFS:
– Reincarnation
• Rebirth of an individual’s soul until a perfect state is
achieved
– Follow path of right thinking, right action, &
religious devotion
– Karma (person’s good or bad deeds) follows the
person from one reincarnation to another
– Ultimate Goal = moksha (state of perfect
understanding)
Hinduism
• MODERN-DAY TRADITIONS:
– Freedom to choose among three paths for
achieving moksha and the deity to worship
– Hindu religion dominates daily life
Hinduism
• ATTITUDE TOWARD CASTE SYSTEM:
– Ideas of karma & reincarnation strengthened the
caste system
Buddhism
• FOUNDER:
– Siddhartha Gautama (The Buddha)
Buddhism
• WHO BELIEVERS WORSHIP:
– Buddhists do not worship a god
Buddhism
• LEADERS:
– Buddhist monks & nuns
Buddhism
• SACRED TEXTS:
–
–
–
–
Verses of Righteousness
Written teachings of Buddha & his legends
How-To-Meditate manuals
Rules about monastic life (life in a monastery)
Buddhism
* Main ideas come from Four
Noble Truths
• BASIC BELIEFS:
– Seek a state of enlightenment (wisdom)
– Ultimate Goal = Nirvana (release from selfishness & pain)
Four Noble Truths:
Eightfold Path:
1. Life is filled with suffering &
sorrow
1. Right Views
2. The cause of all suffering is
selfish desire for temporary
pleasures
3. Right Speech
3. The way to end all suffering is
to end all desires
4. The way to overcome desires is
to follow the Eightfold Path
2. Right Resolve
4. Right Conduct
5. Right Livelihood
6. Right Effort
7. Right Mindfulness
8. Right Concentration
Buddhism
• Separated into 2 sects: Mahayana (New
school) and Theravada (Old School)
Buddhism
• MODERN-DAY TRADITIONS:
– Pilgrimages to sites associated with Buddha’s life
– Performing of Buddhist worship rituals
Buddhism
• ATTITUDE TOWARD CASTE SYSTEM:
– Rejected caste system
Spread of Buddhism
• How?
– Traders (*Most Important)
– Missionaries
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