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Historical Foundations
Historical Foundations
CHAPTER 4
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Historical Foundations
2
 Identify events that served as catalysts for physical
education, exercise science, and sport’s growth.
 Identify some of the outstanding leaders in the
fields.
 Discuss recent developments in physical education,
exercise science, and sport.
 Draw implications from history of our fields for the
future of physical education, exercise science, and
sport.
Sport History
3

Emerged as a subdiscipline in the late 1960s
and early 1970s.

“… field of scholarly inquiry with multiple and
often intersecting foci, including exercise, the
body, play, games, athletics, sports, physical
recreations, health, and leisure.” (Struna)

How has the past shaped sport and its experiences
today?

1973: North American Society for Sport History
held its first meeting.
Sample Areas of Study...
4
 How did urbanization influence the development of
sports in America?
 How did the sports activities of Native Americans
influence the recreational pursuits of the early
colonists?
 How did segregation impact sports opportunities for
blacks?
 What factors influenced the inclusion of physical
education in the school curriculum?
 How did sport develop and what is its impact on
youth culture?
Greece
 “Golden Age” of physical
education and sport
 Unity of the mind, body
and spirit
 “Body beautiful”
 Areté – the pursuit of
excellence
 Vital part of the education
of every Greek boy
 National festivals
 Olympic Games
5
Rome
6
 Exercise for health and military
purposes.
 Greek gymnastics were introduced to
Rome after the conquest of Greece
but were not popular.



Rome did not believe in the “body
beautiful”
Preferred to be spectators rather than
participants
Preferred professionalism to amateurism.
 Exciting “blood sports”:
 gladiatorial combats and chariot races
 “Duel to the death” or satisfaction of
spectators.
Germany
7
 Period of nationalism -
focus on development of
strong citizens through
school and community
programs of physical
education.
 Physical education
should be included in
the school curriculum –
programs emphasize the
development of strength.
German Leaders
8
 Basedow (1723-1790) – designed physical education programs for
school students based on philosophy of naturalism; first school in
modern Europe that included PE as part of the educational
curriculum.
 Guts Muths (1759-1839) – extensive program of outdoor
gymnastics; stressed the value of physical education in the
development and education of children.
 Jahn (1778-1852) – Turnverein movement to mold youth into strong,
hardy citizens capable of overthrowing foreign control.
 Spiess (1810-1858) – advocated for the inclusion of gymnastics within
the school curriculum; emphasis on professions, use of trained
teachers, and contribution of gymnastics to total development of
child.
Sweden
9
 Scientific study of
physical education
 Used anatomy and
physiology to study the
effects of physical
education on the body.
 Less emphasis on
strength than German
approach
 Influenced by
nationalism.
Sweden Leaders
10
 Per Ling (1776-1839)
 Design of gymnastic programs to meet specific individual
needs.
 Different types of gymnastics: Educational, military,
medical and aesthetics gymnastics.
 Teachers of physical education must have foundational
knowledge of the effects of exercise on the human body.
 Hjalmar Ling (1820-1886)
 Significant role in developing school gymnastics and
curriculum.
 Day’s Order – daily exercises for school children.
Denmark
11
 Franz Nachtegall (1777-1847) – “father” of Danish
gymnastics.



Worked with Danish public schools to incorporate PE into their
curriculum.
Established a school to train teachers of gymnastics for the
army and for the schools.
Gymnastics emphasized fitness and strength, with formalized
exercises being performed on command.
Great Britain
12
 Home of outdoor sports and recreational pursuits.
 Maclaren (1920-1884)
 Eager to make physical training a science; system adopted
by the British Army.
 Health is more important than strength.
 Exercise adapted to the individual.
 Physical education essential in school curriculum.
 Muscular Christianity
 Sport contributes to the development of moral character.
 Reconciles sport and religion.
Physical Education in the U.S.
13
 Influenced by
European ideals:


Systems of gymnastics
(exercises)
Philosophies of physical
education
 Influence of Ancient
Asian cultures:



Yoga
Martial arts
Relationships between the
mind, body, and spirit
Colonial Period (1607-1783)
14
 Colonists led an agrarian existence - physical activity
through performing tasks essential to living and
survival.
 Colonists brought sports with them from their native
lands.
 Puritans denounced play as evil; recreational pursuits
frowned upon.
 Reading, writing, and arithmetic in schools, not
physical education.
National Period (1784-1861)
15
 Charles Beck (1798-1866) 1825 - introduced German
gymnastics to his students at the Round Hill School.
 Charles Follen (1796-1840) 1826 - organized exercise
classes based on the German system for his students
at Harvard University.
 Catherine Beecher (1800-1878) 1828 – developed a
program of calisthenics performed to music, which
included Swedish exercises, to improve the health
and vitality of her students at the Hartford Female
Seminary.
National Period (1784-1861)
16
 1839 - Invention of baseball
 1851 – first national Turnfest
held in Philadelphia.
 1852: First intercollegiate
competition: a crew race
between Harvard and Yale.
Intercollegiate athletics
becomes increasingly
common on college
campuses.
 Horseracing, foot races,
rowing, and gambling on
sport events were popular.
Civil War Period until 1900
17
 Dioclesian Lewis (1823-1886)
Developed system of “light” gymnastics
 1861 – established Normal Institute for Physical Education
in Boston to train teachers.

 Edward Hitchcock (1828-1911)
1861 – Director of Hygiene and Physical Education at
Amherst College
 Pioneering work in the scientific approach to PE
 Anthropomorphic measurement incorporated into
program to assess outcomes.
 1885 – First president of the Association for the
Advancement of Physical Education.

Civil War Period until 1900
18
 Dudley Sargent (1849-1924)
 1879 – Director of Hemenway Gymnasium at Harvard University.
 Scientific and comprehensive approach to physical education; used
anthropomorphic measurement to develop individualized conditioning
programs for students.
 1881 – Sanatory Gymnasium to prepare teachers in his approach.
 William Anderson (1860 – 1947)
 Played an instrumental role in the founding of the American
Association for the Advancement of Physical Education in 1885.
 1885 – Director of Physical Training at Adelphi Academy in Brooklyn.
Civil War Period until 1900
19
 Delphina Hanna (1854-1941)
 1885 – Accepted teaching position at Oberlin College where, in 1903,
she became the first woman full professor of physical education in the
US.
 Developed training program for prospective teachers which evolved
into one of the first professional preparation programs.
 George Fitz (1860-1934)
 Research physiologist at Harvard.
 Emphasized the need for physical education programs to be based on
scientific principles so that the actual benefits of exercise could be
determined.
 1892 – established a formal exercise physiology lab at Harvard where
he and his students conducted research on physiological effects of
physical activity.
Civil War Period until 1900
20
 Hartvig Nissen (1855-1924) –
 Pioneered in the promotion of Swedish system of
gymnastics in the US.
 1891-1990 Leadership role in physical education for the
Boston Public School System where he influenced adoption
of Swedish gymnastics.
 Baron Nils Posse (1862-1895)
 Leader in the promotion of Swedish system of gymnastics
in the US.
 1889 – helped establish the Boston Normal School of
Gymnastics to train teachers in the Swedish system.
Civil War Period until 1900
21
 Amy Morris Homans (1848-1933)
 1889 – Director of the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics.
 Mary Hemenway, Bostonian philanthropist, underwrote the
establishment of the school.
 Played an influential role in getting the Boston Public School system to
adopt the Swedish system of gymnastics.
 Luther Gulick (1865-1918)
 Instrumental role in YMCA International Training School at
Springfield, MA.
 Designed the YMCA logo, with the equilateral triangle representing the
unity of the mind, body and spirit and importance of developing the
whole person.
 1906 – helps form the Playground Association of America.
Civil War Period until 1900
22
Battle of the Systems

Late 1880s sparked debate among physical educators
regarding which system of gymnastics should serve as the
curriculum for American schools.

1880 – Boston Conference on Physical Training
 No consensus on which system would best serve needs
of American people
 Posse – need an American system designed for the
American people
Civil War Period until 1900
23
 Growth of American sport in popularity:
 Tennis
 Golf
 Bowling
 Basketball (Naismith)
 Founding of forerunner of Amateur Athletic
Association (AAU).
 1896 - Revival of Olympics in Athens.
 Colleges and universities develop departments and
expand programs.
Civil War Period until 1900
24
 1851 – first YMCA opens up in US; 1885 YMCA
training school established in Springfield, MA.
 Expansion of intercollegiate athletics:
 Abuses raise concerns
 Establishment of governing bodies
 Emphasis on teacher preparation, scientific basis of
PE, diagnosis and prescription of activity.
 Organized PE programs in elementary and
secondary schools.
 1885 - Founding of the forerunner of AAHPERD.
Early Twentieth Century (1900s-1940s)
25
 Extensive interscholastic programs - controversy
over programs for girls.
 Growth of intramural programs and emphasis on
games and sports in our programs.
 Increased concern for the physically underdeveloped
in our society.
 Playground movement.
 Higher standards for teacher training (4 year
preparation).
 NCAA established to monitor collegiate athletics.
Early Twentieth Century (1900s-1940s)
26
 Thomas Dennison Wood (1864-1951)


Called for the development of a “new” program of physical education,
initially called “Natural Gymnastics”.
His vision for “new” physical education calls for a program with an:

“aim as broad as education itself… The great thought in physical
education is not the education of physical nature, but the relationship of
physical training to complete education , and then the effort to make the
physical contribute its full share to the life of the individual …”
 Robert Tait McKenzie (1867-1938)



Physician, physical educator, and noted artist-sculptor.
Helped develop physical education programs for individuals with
disabilities.
Authored many books, including Exercise in Education and Medicine.
Early Twentieth Century (1900s-1940s)
27
 Clark Hetherington (1870-1942)


1910 – articulates the four objectives of physical education as organic
(fitness), psychomotor development, character development, and
intellectual development.
Credited with inventing the phrase “new physical education” to
describe Wood’s approach.
 Rosalind Cassidy (1895-1980)


Advocate of “education through the physical” – carefully designed
programs of physical education could contribute to the development
of the whole person.
Prolific writer.
Early Twentieth Century (1900s-1940s)
28
 Jesse F. Williams (1886-1966)



Advocate of “education through the physical” philosophy of physical education.
Stressed the development of social responsibility and moral values through
physical education and athletics.
1927 – Principles of Physical Education.
 Jay B. Nash (1886-1965)


Physical education should give students the ability to use their leisure time in a
worthy manner.
Recreational skills for enjoyment throughout the lifespan.
 Charles McCloy (1886-1959)




Active in research and measurement, including anthropometry.
Advocated for the “education of the physical” approach to physical education.
School physical education’s unique contribution to the education of the
individual is organic and psychomotor development.
Wrote Philosophical Bases for Physical Education.
Early Twentieth Century (1900s-1940s)
29
 Extensive interscholastic programs - controversy
over programs for girls.
 Growth of intramural programs and emphasis on
games and sports in our programs.
 Increased concern for the physically underdeveloped
in our society.
 Playground movement.
 Higher standards for teacher training (4 year
preparation).
 NCAA established to monitor collegiate athletics.
World War I (1916-1919)
30
 Physical educators developed
conditioning programs for armed
forces.
 After the war, health statistics revealed
that the nation was in poor shape (1/3
of men were physically unfit for armed
service).
 Growth and upgrade of PE programs in
schools following war due to legislation
in some states.
Golden Twenties (1920-1929)
31
 Move away from formal systems of gymnastics
toward games, sports, and valuable recreation and
leisure time.
 “New” physical education emphasized contribution
to the total development of the individual;
“education through the physical” vs. “education of
the physical”.
 Calls for reform of collegiate athletics due to
increasing professionalism, public entertainment,
and commercialization.
 Women’s programs increase staff, activities,
required participation, and facilities.
Depression Years (1930-1939)
32
 Economic forces lead to cutbacks in PE programs
and growth of recreational programs.
 Physical educators more involved in recreational
programs for the unemployed.
 Growth of interscholastic, intercollegiate and
women’s programs.
 Charles McCloy (1886-1959) – advocated
“education of the physical” and stressed the
importance documenting results and measuring
progress of using scientific data.
Mid-twentieth Century (1940-1970)
33
 Impact of WW II physical training programs.
 Physical fitness movement.

President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports
 Athletics
Increased opportunities for girls and women.
 Increased interest in lifetime sports.
 Sport programs below high school level increased.
 Increased number of intramural programs.

Mid-twentieth Century (1940-1970)
34
 Professional preparation
Colleges and universities increase programs for teachers
 American College of Sports Medicine (1954)
 National Athletic Trainers’ Association (1950)

 Programs for individuals with disabilities

Special Olympics (1968)
 Research grows in importance and becomes
increasingly specialized.
Significant Recent Developments
35
 Growth of the discipline
 Franklin Henry in 1964 calls for the study of the ‘academic
discipline’ of physical education.

During 1970s knowledge base expands and subdisciplines
emerge.

Debate about the primary focus of the field; in late 1990s
there is a growing consensus that the focus should be
physical activity.

1989 – American Academy of Physical Education changes
its name to the American Academy of Kinesiology and
Physical Education.

Ongoing debate about what is the best name for
the discipline.
Significant Recent Developments
36
 Disease prevention and health promotion:





Healthy People
Objectives for the Nation
Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity and Health
Healthy People 2000
Healthy People 2010
 Legislation promoting opportunities for girls and
women, and people with disabilities.
 Increased technology.
School Physical Education
37
 Recognition of the critical role school PE plays in achieving
national health goals.
 Fitness status and physical activity of children and youth is a
concern.
 Congressional support for high-quality, daily physical
education is needed.
 National Content Standards offer a national framework that
emphasize student learning.
 Emergence of new curricular models.
Physical Fitness and Participation in
Physical Activity
38
 Expansion of the fitness
movement and
involvement in physical
activity.
 Shift from performance- to
health-related fitness to an
emphasis on moderateintensity physical activity.
 Physical inactivity
recognized as a major
health problem.
The Growth of Sport
39
 Phenomenal growth of
participation in sports at
all levels.
 Youth sports involve
more than 25 million
children.
 Interscholastic sports
involve more than 7
million boys and girls.

Trend is toward early
specialization.
The Growth of Sport
40
 Intercollegiate sports involves over 400,000
athletes (male and female).

Growth of sport as “big business” in some institutions.
 Growth of recreational sport leagues and amateur
sports for adults of all ages.
 Professional sports continue to expand including
professional leagues for women.
Girls and Women in Sport
41
 Rapid growth since the
passage of Title IX in 1972.
 Changes in governance of
intercollegiate sports.
 Challenges to Title IX.
 Changes in physical
education classes following
passage of Title IX.
Programs for Individuals
with Disabilities
42
 Federal Legislation







1973 - PL 93-122 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
1975 - PL 94-142 Education of All Handicapped Children Act of
1975
1978 - PL 95-696 Amateur Sports Act of 1978
1986 – PL 99-457 Education for All Handicapped Children
Amendments
1990 - PL 101-336 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
1990 – 101-336 Americans with Disabilities Act
1998 – PL 105-277 Olympic and Amateur Sports Act
 Paralympics
Olympics
43
Rebirth of the
Olympics in 1896.
Modern Summer Olympic Games
Year
1896
1900
1920
1932
1948
1964
1972
1988
1996
2004
2008
Location
Athens, Greece
Paris, France
Antwerpen, Belgium
Los Angeles, USA
London, Great Britain
Tokyo, Japan
Munich, West Germany
Seoul, South Korea
Atlanta, USA
Athens, Greece
Beijing, China
Countries
12
29
29
41
59
93
121
159
197
201
204
Athletes
176
1,224
2,675
1,876
4,369
5,136
7,113
8,453
10,329
10,558
10,902
Sports
9
20
25
18
21
21
23
27
31
34
34
Events
43
95
160
126
149
163
195
237
271
301
303
Source: Data retrieved from Sports Reference, LLC. http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/summer/
“Fairness” issues in the Olympics.
Evolving definitions of amateurism.
Commercialization of the Olympics.
Politicization of the
Olympic Games.
Technology
44
 Computer technology and
sophisticated research
equipment.
 Contributed to record-breaking
achievements for elite athletes
in nearly all sports.
 Facility improvement.
 User-friendly technology such
as heart rate monitors provide
more specific information
about individuals’ physical
activity.
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