Historical Foundations CHAPTER 4 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Historical Foundations 2 Identify events that served as catalysts for physical education, exercise science, and sport’s growth. Identify some of the outstanding leaders in the fields. Discuss recent developments in physical education, exercise science, and sport. Draw implications from history of our fields for the future of physical education, exercise science, and sport. Sport History 3 Emerged as a subdiscipline in the late 1960s and early 1970s. “… field of scholarly inquiry with multiple and often intersecting foci, including exercise, the body, play, games, athletics, sports, physical recreations, health, and leisure.” (Struna) How has the past shaped sport and its experiences today? 1973: North American Society for Sport History held its first meeting. Sample Areas of Study... 4 How did urbanization influence the development of sports in America? How did the sports activities of Native Americans influence the recreational pursuits of the early colonists? How did segregation impact sports opportunities for blacks? What factors influenced the inclusion of physical education in the school curriculum? How did sport develop and what is its impact on youth culture? Greece “Golden Age” of physical education and sport Unity of the mind, body and spirit “Body beautiful” Areté – the pursuit of excellence Vital part of the education of every Greek boy National festivals Olympic Games 5 Rome 6 Exercise for health and military purposes. Greek gymnastics were introduced to Rome after the conquest of Greece but were not popular. Rome did not believe in the “body beautiful” Preferred to be spectators rather than participants Preferred professionalism to amateurism. Exciting “blood sports”: gladiatorial combats and chariot races “Duel to the death” or satisfaction of spectators. Germany 7 Period of nationalism - focus on development of strong citizens through school and community programs of physical education. Physical education should be included in the school curriculum – programs emphasize the development of strength. German Leaders 8 Basedow (1723-1790) – designed physical education programs for school students based on philosophy of naturalism; first school in modern Europe that included PE as part of the educational curriculum. Guts Muths (1759-1839) – extensive program of outdoor gymnastics; stressed the value of physical education in the development and education of children. Jahn (1778-1852) – Turnverein movement to mold youth into strong, hardy citizens capable of overthrowing foreign control. Spiess (1810-1858) – advocated for the inclusion of gymnastics within the school curriculum; emphasis on professions, use of trained teachers, and contribution of gymnastics to total development of child. Sweden 9 Scientific study of physical education Used anatomy and physiology to study the effects of physical education on the body. Less emphasis on strength than German approach Influenced by nationalism. Sweden Leaders 10 Per Ling (1776-1839) Design of gymnastic programs to meet specific individual needs. Different types of gymnastics: Educational, military, medical and aesthetics gymnastics. Teachers of physical education must have foundational knowledge of the effects of exercise on the human body. Hjalmar Ling (1820-1886) Significant role in developing school gymnastics and curriculum. Day’s Order – daily exercises for school children. Denmark 11 Franz Nachtegall (1777-1847) – “father” of Danish gymnastics. Worked with Danish public schools to incorporate PE into their curriculum. Established a school to train teachers of gymnastics for the army and for the schools. Gymnastics emphasized fitness and strength, with formalized exercises being performed on command. Great Britain 12 Home of outdoor sports and recreational pursuits. Maclaren (1920-1884) Eager to make physical training a science; system adopted by the British Army. Health is more important than strength. Exercise adapted to the individual. Physical education essential in school curriculum. Muscular Christianity Sport contributes to the development of moral character. Reconciles sport and religion. Physical Education in the U.S. 13 Influenced by European ideals: Systems of gymnastics (exercises) Philosophies of physical education Influence of Ancient Asian cultures: Yoga Martial arts Relationships between the mind, body, and spirit Colonial Period (1607-1783) 14 Colonists led an agrarian existence - physical activity through performing tasks essential to living and survival. Colonists brought sports with them from their native lands. Puritans denounced play as evil; recreational pursuits frowned upon. Reading, writing, and arithmetic in schools, not physical education. National Period (1784-1861) 15 Charles Beck (1798-1866) 1825 - introduced German gymnastics to his students at the Round Hill School. Charles Follen (1796-1840) 1826 - organized exercise classes based on the German system for his students at Harvard University. Catherine Beecher (1800-1878) 1828 – developed a program of calisthenics performed to music, which included Swedish exercises, to improve the health and vitality of her students at the Hartford Female Seminary. National Period (1784-1861) 16 1839 - Invention of baseball 1851 – first national Turnfest held in Philadelphia. 1852: First intercollegiate competition: a crew race between Harvard and Yale. Intercollegiate athletics becomes increasingly common on college campuses. Horseracing, foot races, rowing, and gambling on sport events were popular. Civil War Period until 1900 17 Dioclesian Lewis (1823-1886) Developed system of “light” gymnastics 1861 – established Normal Institute for Physical Education in Boston to train teachers. Edward Hitchcock (1828-1911) 1861 – Director of Hygiene and Physical Education at Amherst College Pioneering work in the scientific approach to PE Anthropomorphic measurement incorporated into program to assess outcomes. 1885 – First president of the Association for the Advancement of Physical Education. Civil War Period until 1900 18 Dudley Sargent (1849-1924) 1879 – Director of Hemenway Gymnasium at Harvard University. Scientific and comprehensive approach to physical education; used anthropomorphic measurement to develop individualized conditioning programs for students. 1881 – Sanatory Gymnasium to prepare teachers in his approach. William Anderson (1860 – 1947) Played an instrumental role in the founding of the American Association for the Advancement of Physical Education in 1885. 1885 – Director of Physical Training at Adelphi Academy in Brooklyn. Civil War Period until 1900 19 Delphina Hanna (1854-1941) 1885 – Accepted teaching position at Oberlin College where, in 1903, she became the first woman full professor of physical education in the US. Developed training program for prospective teachers which evolved into one of the first professional preparation programs. George Fitz (1860-1934) Research physiologist at Harvard. Emphasized the need for physical education programs to be based on scientific principles so that the actual benefits of exercise could be determined. 1892 – established a formal exercise physiology lab at Harvard where he and his students conducted research on physiological effects of physical activity. Civil War Period until 1900 20 Hartvig Nissen (1855-1924) – Pioneered in the promotion of Swedish system of gymnastics in the US. 1891-1990 Leadership role in physical education for the Boston Public School System where he influenced adoption of Swedish gymnastics. Baron Nils Posse (1862-1895) Leader in the promotion of Swedish system of gymnastics in the US. 1889 – helped establish the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics to train teachers in the Swedish system. Civil War Period until 1900 21 Amy Morris Homans (1848-1933) 1889 – Director of the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics. Mary Hemenway, Bostonian philanthropist, underwrote the establishment of the school. Played an influential role in getting the Boston Public School system to adopt the Swedish system of gymnastics. Luther Gulick (1865-1918) Instrumental role in YMCA International Training School at Springfield, MA. Designed the YMCA logo, with the equilateral triangle representing the unity of the mind, body and spirit and importance of developing the whole person. 1906 – helps form the Playground Association of America. Civil War Period until 1900 22 Battle of the Systems Late 1880s sparked debate among physical educators regarding which system of gymnastics should serve as the curriculum for American schools. 1880 – Boston Conference on Physical Training No consensus on which system would best serve needs of American people Posse – need an American system designed for the American people Civil War Period until 1900 23 Growth of American sport in popularity: Tennis Golf Bowling Basketball (Naismith) Founding of forerunner of Amateur Athletic Association (AAU). 1896 - Revival of Olympics in Athens. Colleges and universities develop departments and expand programs. Civil War Period until 1900 24 1851 – first YMCA opens up in US; 1885 YMCA training school established in Springfield, MA. Expansion of intercollegiate athletics: Abuses raise concerns Establishment of governing bodies Emphasis on teacher preparation, scientific basis of PE, diagnosis and prescription of activity. Organized PE programs in elementary and secondary schools. 1885 - Founding of the forerunner of AAHPERD. Early Twentieth Century (1900s-1940s) 25 Extensive interscholastic programs - controversy over programs for girls. Growth of intramural programs and emphasis on games and sports in our programs. Increased concern for the physically underdeveloped in our society. Playground movement. Higher standards for teacher training (4 year preparation). NCAA established to monitor collegiate athletics. Early Twentieth Century (1900s-1940s) 26 Thomas Dennison Wood (1864-1951) Called for the development of a “new” program of physical education, initially called “Natural Gymnastics”. His vision for “new” physical education calls for a program with an: “aim as broad as education itself… The great thought in physical education is not the education of physical nature, but the relationship of physical training to complete education , and then the effort to make the physical contribute its full share to the life of the individual …” Robert Tait McKenzie (1867-1938) Physician, physical educator, and noted artist-sculptor. Helped develop physical education programs for individuals with disabilities. Authored many books, including Exercise in Education and Medicine. Early Twentieth Century (1900s-1940s) 27 Clark Hetherington (1870-1942) 1910 – articulates the four objectives of physical education as organic (fitness), psychomotor development, character development, and intellectual development. Credited with inventing the phrase “new physical education” to describe Wood’s approach. Rosalind Cassidy (1895-1980) Advocate of “education through the physical” – carefully designed programs of physical education could contribute to the development of the whole person. Prolific writer. Early Twentieth Century (1900s-1940s) 28 Jesse F. Williams (1886-1966) Advocate of “education through the physical” philosophy of physical education. Stressed the development of social responsibility and moral values through physical education and athletics. 1927 – Principles of Physical Education. Jay B. Nash (1886-1965) Physical education should give students the ability to use their leisure time in a worthy manner. Recreational skills for enjoyment throughout the lifespan. Charles McCloy (1886-1959) Active in research and measurement, including anthropometry. Advocated for the “education of the physical” approach to physical education. School physical education’s unique contribution to the education of the individual is organic and psychomotor development. Wrote Philosophical Bases for Physical Education. Early Twentieth Century (1900s-1940s) 29 Extensive interscholastic programs - controversy over programs for girls. Growth of intramural programs and emphasis on games and sports in our programs. Increased concern for the physically underdeveloped in our society. Playground movement. Higher standards for teacher training (4 year preparation). NCAA established to monitor collegiate athletics. World War I (1916-1919) 30 Physical educators developed conditioning programs for armed forces. After the war, health statistics revealed that the nation was in poor shape (1/3 of men were physically unfit for armed service). Growth and upgrade of PE programs in schools following war due to legislation in some states. Golden Twenties (1920-1929) 31 Move away from formal systems of gymnastics toward games, sports, and valuable recreation and leisure time. “New” physical education emphasized contribution to the total development of the individual; “education through the physical” vs. “education of the physical”. Calls for reform of collegiate athletics due to increasing professionalism, public entertainment, and commercialization. Women’s programs increase staff, activities, required participation, and facilities. Depression Years (1930-1939) 32 Economic forces lead to cutbacks in PE programs and growth of recreational programs. Physical educators more involved in recreational programs for the unemployed. Growth of interscholastic, intercollegiate and women’s programs. Charles McCloy (1886-1959) – advocated “education of the physical” and stressed the importance documenting results and measuring progress of using scientific data. Mid-twentieth Century (1940-1970) 33 Impact of WW II physical training programs. Physical fitness movement. President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Athletics Increased opportunities for girls and women. Increased interest in lifetime sports. Sport programs below high school level increased. Increased number of intramural programs. Mid-twentieth Century (1940-1970) 34 Professional preparation Colleges and universities increase programs for teachers American College of Sports Medicine (1954) National Athletic Trainers’ Association (1950) Programs for individuals with disabilities Special Olympics (1968) Research grows in importance and becomes increasingly specialized. Significant Recent Developments 35 Growth of the discipline Franklin Henry in 1964 calls for the study of the ‘academic discipline’ of physical education. During 1970s knowledge base expands and subdisciplines emerge. Debate about the primary focus of the field; in late 1990s there is a growing consensus that the focus should be physical activity. 1989 – American Academy of Physical Education changes its name to the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education. Ongoing debate about what is the best name for the discipline. Significant Recent Developments 36 Disease prevention and health promotion: Healthy People Objectives for the Nation Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity and Health Healthy People 2000 Healthy People 2010 Legislation promoting opportunities for girls and women, and people with disabilities. Increased technology. School Physical Education 37 Recognition of the critical role school PE plays in achieving national health goals. Fitness status and physical activity of children and youth is a concern. Congressional support for high-quality, daily physical education is needed. National Content Standards offer a national framework that emphasize student learning. Emergence of new curricular models. Physical Fitness and Participation in Physical Activity 38 Expansion of the fitness movement and involvement in physical activity. Shift from performance- to health-related fitness to an emphasis on moderateintensity physical activity. Physical inactivity recognized as a major health problem. The Growth of Sport 39 Phenomenal growth of participation in sports at all levels. Youth sports involve more than 25 million children. Interscholastic sports involve more than 7 million boys and girls. Trend is toward early specialization. The Growth of Sport 40 Intercollegiate sports involves over 400,000 athletes (male and female). Growth of sport as “big business” in some institutions. Growth of recreational sport leagues and amateur sports for adults of all ages. Professional sports continue to expand including professional leagues for women. Girls and Women in Sport 41 Rapid growth since the passage of Title IX in 1972. Changes in governance of intercollegiate sports. Challenges to Title IX. Changes in physical education classes following passage of Title IX. Programs for Individuals with Disabilities 42 Federal Legislation 1973 - PL 93-122 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act 1975 - PL 94-142 Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 1978 - PL 95-696 Amateur Sports Act of 1978 1986 – PL 99-457 Education for All Handicapped Children Amendments 1990 - PL 101-336 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 1990 – 101-336 Americans with Disabilities Act 1998 – PL 105-277 Olympic and Amateur Sports Act Paralympics Olympics 43 Rebirth of the Olympics in 1896. Modern Summer Olympic Games Year 1896 1900 1920 1932 1948 1964 1972 1988 1996 2004 2008 Location Athens, Greece Paris, France Antwerpen, Belgium Los Angeles, USA London, Great Britain Tokyo, Japan Munich, West Germany Seoul, South Korea Atlanta, USA Athens, Greece Beijing, China Countries 12 29 29 41 59 93 121 159 197 201 204 Athletes 176 1,224 2,675 1,876 4,369 5,136 7,113 8,453 10,329 10,558 10,902 Sports 9 20 25 18 21 21 23 27 31 34 34 Events 43 95 160 126 149 163 195 237 271 301 303 Source: Data retrieved from Sports Reference, LLC. http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/summer/ “Fairness” issues in the Olympics. Evolving definitions of amateurism. Commercialization of the Olympics. Politicization of the Olympic Games. Technology 44 Computer technology and sophisticated research equipment. Contributed to record-breaking achievements for elite athletes in nearly all sports. Facility improvement. User-friendly technology such as heart rate monitors provide more specific information about individuals’ physical activity.