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Antibiotics

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Antibiotics
Antibiotics
Learning Objectives




Identify the major types of antibiotics by
drug class.
Know which auxiliary labels to use when
dispensing major types of antibiotics.
Define therapeutic effects, side effects,
and administration routes of major
antibiotics.
Use antibiotic and general drug
terminology correctly in written and oral
communications.
Anti-Infective Agents
Antibiotics:
Sulfonamides
Penicillins
Cephalosporins
Tetracyclines
Aminoglycosides
Quinolones
Macrolides
Antibiotics


Medications used to treat bacterial
infections
Ideally, before beginning antibiotic
therapy, the suspected areas of
infection should be cultured to identify
the causative organism and potential
antibiotic susceptibilities.
Antibiotics


Empiric therapy: treatment of an
infection before specific culture
information has been reported or
obtained
Prophylactic therapy: treatment with
antibiotics to prevent an infection, as
in intra-abdominal surgery
Antibiotics
 Bactericidal:
kill bacteria
 Bacteriostatic: inhibit growth of
susceptible bacteria, rather than killing
them immediately; will eventually lead
to bacterial death
Types of Bacteria
 Aerobic
bacteria
needs oxygen to survive
 Anaerobic
bacteria
survives in the absence of oxygen
Bacteria Shapes
(a) Round cocci
(b) Rod-like bacilli
(c) Spiral-shaped spirochetes
Gram’s Stain Results and
Related Diseases
Shape Gram’s
Stain
rods
Bacteria
gram-positive Corynebacteria
gramnegative
E. Coli
Related
Disease
endocarditis
UTI
Gram’s Stain Results and
Related Diseases
Shape
Gram’s Stain Bacteria
cocci
gram-positive
Staphylococcus
gram-negative Neisseria
Related
Disease
toxic shock
syndrome
gonorrhea
Gram’s Stain Results and
Related Diseases
Shape
Gram’s Stain Bacteria
Related
Disease
curved or
spiral rods
gram-negative Campylobacter
septicemia
spirochetes gram-negative Treponema
palladium
syphilis
How Antibiotics Work

Block protein formation
How Antibiotics Work

Block protein formation
– Macrolides
– Tetracyclines
– Aminoglycosides
How Antibiotics Work



Block protein formation
Inhibit cell wall formation
Interfere with DNA formation
How Antibiotics Work



Block protein formation
Inhibit cell wall formation
Interfere with DNA formation
– Nalidixic acid
How Antibiotics Work




Block protein formation
Inhibit cell wall formation
Interfere with DNA formation
Prevent folic acid synthesis
How Antibiotics Work




Block protein formation
Inhibit cell wall formation
Interfere with DNA formation
Prevent folic acid synthesis
– Sulfonamides
Sulfonamides
One of the first groups of antibасterial
agents
 sulfadiazine
 sulfamethizole
 sulfamethoxazole
 sulfisoxazole
Sulfonamides:
Mechanism of Action



Bacteriostatic action
Prevent synthesis of folic acid required
for synthesis of purines and nucleic
acid
Does not affect human cells or certain
bacteria—they can use preformed folic
acid
Structure of sulfonamides
para-Aminobenzoic acid
sulfonamide
Classification of sulfonamides
(accordingly to duration of action)




Short
action:
streptocid,
sulfadimezine,
aethazole,
norsulfazole,
urosulfan,
sulfizoxazole, sulfacyl-sodium
Medium duration of action: sulfamethoxazole
(is a part of co-trimoxazole)
Longlasting
action:
sulfadimethoxyn,
sulfapirydazin, sulfamonomethoxyn
Super longlasting action: sulfalen, sulfadoxyn
(is a part of fansidar)
Sulfonamides: sulfamethoxazole
Therapeutic Uses
Azo-Gantanol
 Combined
with phenazopyridine
(an analgesic-anesthetic that affects the
mucosa
of the urinary tract).
 Used
to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs)
and to reduce the pain associated with UTIs.
Bactrim
 Combined
 Used
with trimethoprim.
to treat UTIs, Pneumocystis carinii
pneumonia, ear infections, bronchitis,
gonorrhea, etc.
Co-trimoxazole (Bactrim)




480 - for adults
960 - for adults
120 – for children
240 – for children
Orally 2 times daily
Co-trimoxazole = Bactrim
(trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole)
Sulfonamides:
sulfisoxazole Therapeutic
Uses
Azo-Gantrisin


Combined with phenazopyridine
Used for UTIs
Pediazole
 Combined with erythromycin
 Used to treat otitis media
Sulfonamides: Side
Effects
Body System
Effect
Blood
Hemolytic and aplastic
anemia,
thrombocytopenia
Integumentary
Photosensitivity,
exfoliative
dermatitis, StevensJohnson
syndrome, epidermal
necrolysis
Sulfonamides: Side
Effects
Body System
Effect
GI
vomiting, diarrhea,
Other
crystalluria,
Nausea,
pancreatitis
Convulsions,
headache,
urticaria
toxic nephrosis,
peripheral neuritis,
Sulfonamides’ Dispensing
Issues
Avoid the sun
 Maintain adequate fluid intake

Classes of Antibiotics





Sulfonamides
Penicillins
Cephalosporins
Tetracyclines
Macrolides





Ketolides
Quinolones
Streptogramins
Aminoglycosides
Cyclic Lipopetides
Antibiotics: Penicillins




Natural penicillins
Penicillinase-resistant penicillins
Aminopenicillins
Extended-spectrum penicillins
Antibiotics: Penicillins
Natural penicillins

penicillin G, penicillin V potassium
Penicillinase-resistant penicillins

cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, methicillin, nafcillin,
oxacillin
Antibiotics: Penicillins
Aminopenicillins

amoxicillin, ampicillin, bacampicillin
Extended-spectrum penicillins

piperacillin, ticarcillin, carbenicillin,
mezlocillin
Antibiotics: Penicillins




First introduced in the 1940s
Bactericidal: inhibit cell wall synthesis
Kill a wide variety of bacteria
Also called “beta-lactams”
S
H2 N
CH3
CH3
T
L
O
N
C
O
OH
Nucleus of penicillin molecule
L – beta-lactame ring, T – thiazoline ring
Antibiotics: Penicillins



Bacteria produce enzymes capable of
destroying penicillins.
These enzymes are known as
beta-lactamases.
As a result, the medication is not
effective.
Antibiotics: Penicillins

Chemicals have been developed to
inhibit these enzymes:
– clavulanic acid
– tazobactam
– sulbactam

These chemicals bind with betalactamase and prevent the enzyme
from breaking down the penicillin
Antibiotics: Penicillins

Penicillin-beta-lactamase inhibitor combination
drugs:
– ampicillin + sulbactam = Unasyn
– amoxicillin + clavulanic acid = Augmentin
– ticarcillin + clavulanic acid = Timentin
– piperacillin + tazobactam = Zosyn
Unasyn (ampicillin/sulbactam)
Penicillins: Mechanism of Action



Penicillins enter the bacteria via the cell wall.
Inside the cell, they bind to penicillin-binding
protein.
Once bound, normal cell wall synthesis is
disrupted.

Result: bacteria cells die from cell lysis.

Penicillins do not kill other cells in the body.
Penicillins: Therapeutic
Uses

Prevention and treatment of infections
caused by susceptible bacteria, such
as:
– gram-positive bacteria
– Streptococcus, Enterococcus,
Staphylococcus species
Penicillins: Adverse
Effects

Allergic reactions occur in 0.7% – 8%
of treatments
– urticaria, pruritus, angioedema
10% of allergic reactions are lifethreatening
and
 10% of these are fatal

Penicillins: Side Effects

Common side effects:
– nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal
pain

Other side effects are less common
Penicillins’ Dispensing
Issues

Take on an empty stomach
– Food slows absorption
– Acids in fruit juices or colas could
deactivate the drug
Penicillin Resistance



Penicillinase-resistant penicillins
work against gram-positive
aerobes
Extended-spectrum penicillins
are more resistant to gramnegative bacteria
Penicillin combinations improve
effect
Antibiotics:
Cephalosporins




First Generation
Second Generation
Third Generation
Fourth Generation
S
H2N
L
O
D
N
CH2
C
O
CO
O
OH
Structure of cephalosporins
L – beta-lactame ring, D – dihydrothiazine ring
CH3
Antibiotics: Cephalosporins





Semisynthetic derivatives from a
fungus
Structurally and pharmacologically
related
to penicillins
Bactericidal action
Broad spectrum
Divided into groups according to
their antimicrobial activity
Cephalosporins: First
Generation
cefadroxil
 cephalexin
 cephradine
 cefazolin
 cephalothin
 cephapirin

– Good gram-positive coverage
– Poor gram-negative coverage
Cephalosporins

First-generation
– Similar to penicillinase-resistant penicillins
with greater gram-negative coverage
– Used for
community-acquired infections
 mild to moderate infections

Cephalosporins: First
Generation
cefazolin
(Ancef and Kefzol)
IV and PO
cephalexin
(Keflex and Keftab)
PO
used for surgical prophylaxis, URIs, otitis
media
Cephalosporins: Second
Generation
 cefaclor
• cefonicid
 cefprozil
• ceforanide
 cefamandole
• cefmetazole
 cefoxitin
• cefotetan
 cefuroxime
– Good gram-positive coverage
– Better gram-negative coverage than first
generation
Cephalosporins

Second-generation
– Increased activity, especially against
Haemophilus influenzae
– Used for
Otitis media in children
 Respiratory infections
 UTIs

Cephalosporins: Second
Generation
Cefoxitin
(Mefoxin)
Ceftin)
IV and IM
cefuroxime
(Kefurox and
Used prophylactically for
prophylaxis
abdominal or colorectal
surgeries
Also kills anaerobes
Surgical
PO
Does not kill
anaerobes
Cephalosporins: Third
Generation
 cefixime
 cefpodoxime
 cefoperazone
 cefotaxime
proxetil
•
•
•
•
ceftizoxime
ceftriaxone
ceftazidime
moxalactam
– Most potent group against gram-negative
– Less active against gram-positive
Cephalosporins

Third-generation
– Active against a wide spectrum of gramnegative organisms
– Long half-life, so once-a-day dosing for
some
– Used for
Ambulatory patients
 Children (dosing before or after school)

Cephalosporins: Third
Generation
cefixime (Suprax)
 Only oral third-generation agent


Best of available oral cephalosporins against
gram-negative
Tablet and suspension
ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
 IV and IM, long half-life, once-a-day dosing
 Easily passes meninges and diffused into CSF
to treat CNS infections
Cephalosporins: Third
Generation
ceftazidime (Ceptaz, Fortaz, Tazidime, Tazicef)

IV and IM

Excellent gram-negative coverage

Used for difficult-to-treat organisms such as Pseudomonas spp.

Eliminated renally instead of biliary route

Excellent spectrum of coverage
Cephalosporins: Fourth
Generation
cefepime (Maxipime)


Newest cephalosporin agents.
Broader spectrum of antibacterial activity
than
third generation, especially against
gram-positive bacteria.
Antimicrobial spectrum of cephalosporins
Generation of
cephalosporin
s
Active towards
Grampositive
bacteria
Stability towards
beta-lactamase
GramStaphylo Gramnegative cocci
negative
bacteria
bacteria
І
+++
+/-
++
-
ІІ
++
+
++
+/-
ІІІ
+
+++
+
+
ІV
++
+++
++
++
Cephalosporins
Warning!
Alert the Pharmacist if a
patient allergic to penicillins is
receiving a cephalosporin
prescription.
Cephalosporins Side
Effects



Share side effects of penicillin
Few may initiate unique toxic reactions
Lower frequency of toxicity than many
other antibiotics
Complications, caused by
cephalosporins







Irritation of mucous membrane of digestive tract,
infiltrates after intromuscular introduction , phlebitis
after inrtavenous introduction
Disbacteriosis, superinfection
Allergic reactions, including cross allergy with
penicillins
Granulocytopenia (in case of treatment during more
than 2 weeks)
Hemorrhages (inhibition of synthesis of factors of
blood coagulation in liver) – cephalosporins ІІІ
Nephrotoxicity (accumulation in epithilial cells of
kidney canalicules)
Encephalopathy (hyperreflexia, судоми, coma)
Cephalosporins
Warning!
All of the cephalosporins look
alike when written in the
generic form. Watch for
dosing and indications for
use.
Antibiotics: Tetracyclines





demeclocycline (Declomycin)
oxytetracycline
tetracycline
doxycycline (Doryx, Doxy-Caps,
Vibramycin)
minocycline
Antibiotics: Tetracyclines





Natural and semi-synthetic
Obtained from cultures of
Streptomyces
Bacteriostatic—inhibit bacterial growth
Inhibit protein synthesis
Stop many essential functions of the
bacteria
Antibiotics: Tetracyclines


Bind to Ca2+ and Mg2+ and Al3+ ions to
form insoluble complexes
Thus, dairy products, antacids, and
iron
salts reduce absorption of tetracyclines
Tetracyclines:
Therapeutic Uses

Wide spectrum:
– gram-negative, gram-positive, protozoa,
Mycoplasma, Rickettsia, Chlamydia,
syphilis, Lyme disease

Demeclocycline is also used to treat
SIADH, and pleural and pericardial
effusions
Therapeutic Uses of
Tetracyclines







Acne
Chronic bronchitis
Lyme disease
Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection
Rickettsia infection
Some venereal diseases, such as
Chlamydia infection
Traveler’s diarrhea
Tetracyclines: Side
Effects
Strong affinity for calcium


Discoloration of permanent teeth and
tooth
enamel in fetuses and children
May retard fetal skeletal development if
taken
during pregnancy
Tetracyclines: Side
Effects
Alteration in intestinal flora may result
in:



Superinfection (overgrowth of
nonsusceptible organisms such as Candida)
Diarrhea
Pseudomembranous colitis
Tetracyclines: Side
Effects
May also cause:




Vaginal moniliasis
Gastric upset
Enterocolitis
Maculopapular rash
Tetracyclines’ Dispensing
Issues




Avoid antacids to avoid chelation with
minerals
Photosensitization
To be avoided by pregnant women
and children
Expired drugs are dangerous
Antibiotics:
Aminoglycosides







gentamicin (Garamycin)
kanamycin
neomycin
streptomycin
tobramycin
amikacin (Amikin)
netilmicin
Aminoglycosides






Natural and semi-synthetic
Produced from Streptomyces
Poor oral absorption; no PO forms
Very potent antibiotics with serious
toxicities
Bactericidal
Kill mostly gram-negative; some
gram-positive also
Aminoglycosides


Used to kill gram-negative bacteria
such as Pseudomonas spp., E. coli,
Proteus spp.,
Klebsiella spp.,
Serratia spp.
Often used in combination with
other antibiotics for synergistic
effect.
Aminoglycosides


Three most common (systemic): gentamicin,
tobramycin, amikacin
Cause serious toxicities:
– Nephrotoxicity (renal failure)
– Ototoxicity (auditory impairment and
vestibular [eighth cranial nerve])

Must monitor drug levels to prevent toxicities
Aminoglycosides: Side
Effects
Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity are
the most significant
 Headache
 Paresthesia
 Neuromuscular blockade
 Dizziness
 Vertigo
 Skin rash
 Fever
 Superinfections
Antibiotics: Quinolones





ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
enoxacin (Penetrex)
lomefloxacin (Maxaquin)
norfloxacin (Noroxin)
ofloxacin (Floxin)
Quinolones



Excellent oral absorption
Absorption reduced by antacids
First oral antibiotics effective
against
gram-negative bacteria
Quinolones: Mechanism
of Action




Bactericidal
Effective against gram-negative
organisms and some gram-positive
organisms
Alter DNA of bacteria, causing
death
Do not affect human DNA
Quinolones: Therapeutic
Uses






Lower respiratory tract infections
Bone and joint infections
Infectious diarrhea
Urinary tract infections
Skin infections
Sexually transmitted diseases
Quinolones: Side Effects
Body System
Effects
CNS
fatigue,
restlessness
GI
diarrhea,
thrush,
liver function
headache, dizziness,
depression,
nausea, vomiting,
constipation,
increased
studies
Quinolones: Side Effects
Body System
Effects
Integumentary
rash, pruritus, urticaria,
flushing, photosensitivity
(with lomefloxacin)
fever, chills, blurred
tinnitus
Other
vision,
Quinolones’ Dispensing
Issues



Not to be given with theophylline
Antacids interfere with absorption
Avoid exposure to sun
Antibiotics: Macrolides





erythromycin
azithromycin (Zithromax)
clarithromycin (Biaxin)
dirithromycin
troleandomycin
– bactericidal action
Erythromycin Formulations
Macrolides: Therapeutic
Uses
Strep infections
 Streptococcus pyogenes
(group A beta-hemolytic streptococci)
Mild to moderate URI
 Haemophilus influenzae
Spirochetal infections
 Syphilis and Lyme disease
Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma
Macrolides: Side Effects
GI effects, primarily with erythromycin:


nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hepatotoxicity,
flatulence, jaundice, anorexia
Newer agents, azithromycin and clarithromycin:
fewer side effects, longer duration of action,
better efficacy, better tissue penetration
Macrolides’ Dispensing
Issues
Although most antibiotics should be
taken on an empty stomach,
erythromycins usually cause severe GI
distress, so should be taken with food
Antibiotic Dispensing
Issues
Warning!


Mix exactly as directed by manufacturer
Swab counting tray with alcohol
between drugs to prevent crosscontamination
Antibiotic Side Effects


Most antibiotics should be taken on an
empty stomach to attain faster
absorption
Examples of exceptions
– nitrofurantoin (Macrobid, Macrodantin)
– cefuroxime (Ceftin, Zinacef)
Antibiotics: Nursing Implications




Before beginning therapy, assess drug
allergies; hepatic, liver, and cardiac
function; and other lab studies.
Be sure to obtain thorough patient health
history, including immune status.
Assess for conditions that may be
contraindications to antibiotic use, or that
may indicate cautious use.
Assess for potential drug interactions.
Antibiotics: Nursing
Implications

It is ESSENTIAL to obtain cultures
from appropriate sites BEFORE
beginning antibiotic therapy.
Antibiotics: Nursing
Implications


Patients should be instructed to take antibiotics
exactly as prescribed and for the length of time
prescribed; they should not stop taking the
medication early when they feel better.
Assess for signs and symptoms of
superinfection: fever, perineal itching, cough,
lethargy, or any unusual discharge.
Antibiotics: Nursing
Implications

For safety reasons, check the name of
the medication carefully since there
are many agents that sound alike or
have similar spellings.
Antibiotics: Nursing
Implications



Each class of antibiotics has specific side effects
and drug interactions that must be carefully
assessed and monitored.
The most common side effects of antibiotics are
nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
All oral antibiotics are absorbed better if taken
with at least 6 to 8 ounces of water.
Antibiotics: Nursing
Implications
Sulfonamides



Should be taken with at least 2400 mL of
fluid
per day, unless contraindicated.
Due to photosensitivity, avoid sunlight
and
tanning beds.
These agents reduce the effectiveness of
oral contraceptives.
Antibiotics: Nursing
Implications
Penicillins


Any patient taking a penicillin should be carefully
monitored for an allergic reaction for at least 30
minutes after its administration.
The effectiveness of oral penicillins is decreased
when taken with caffeine, citrus fruit, cola
beverages, fruit juices, or tomato juice.
Antibiotics: Nursing
Implications
Cephalosporins


Orally administered forms should be
given with food to decrease GI upset,
even though this will delay absorption.
Some of these agents may cause an
Antabuse-like reaction when taken with
alcohol.
Antibiotics: Nursing
Implications
Tetracyclines



Milk products, iron preparations,
antacids, and other dairy products
should be avoided because of the
chelation and drug-binding that occurs.
All medications should be taken with 6 to
8 ounces of fluid, preferably water.
Due to photosensitivity, avoid sunlight
and
tanning beds.
Antibiotics: Nursing
Implications
Aminoglycosides



Monitor peak and trough blood levels of
these agents to prevent nephrotoxicity and
ototoxicity.
Symptoms of ototoxicity include dizziness,
tinnitus, and hearing loss.
Symptoms of nephrotoxicity include urinary
casts, proteinuria, and increased BUN and
serum creatinine levels.
Antibiotics: Nursing
Implications
Quinolones

Should be taken with at least 3 L of fluid per
day, unless otherwise specified
Antibiotics: Nursing
Implications
Macrolides


These agents are highly protein-bound and
will cause severe interactions with other
protein-bound drugs.
The absorption of oral erythromycin is
enhanced when taken on an empty
stomach, but because
of the high incidence of GI upset, many
agents
are taken after a meal or snack.
Antibiotics: Nursing
Implications
Monitor for therapeutic effects:
 Disappearance of fever, lethargy,
drainage, and redness
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