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Using the Periodic Table

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Using the Periodic Table
Using the Periodic
Table
An Introduction
What is the Periodic
Table?
•
•
•
It is a list of elements.
The arrangement of the elements is a
guide to the chemistry of those
elements.
It is also a guide to the properties of
those elements.
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has vertical columns called
“groups” or “families.”
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has vertical columns called
“groups” or “families.”
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has vertical columns called
“groups” or “families.”
Alkali metal group
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has vertical columns called
“groups” or “families.”
Alkaline earth group
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has vertical columns called
“groups” or “families.”
Halogen group
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has vertical columns called
“groups” or “families.”
Noble gas group
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has vertical columns called
“groups” or “families.”
Each of these groups
has its own particular
chemistry.
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has vertical columns called
“groups” or “families.”
Alkali metals form
ions with a single
positive charge.
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has vertical columns called
“groups” or “families.”
Each alkaline earth
metal forms ions with
two positive charges.
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has vertical columns called
“groups” or “families.”
Each halogen forms
ions with a single
negative charge.
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has vertical columns called
“groups” or “families.”
Each noble gas is
unreactive.
The Arrangement of the
Table
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has horizontal rows called
“periods.”
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has horizontal rows called
“periods.”
First period
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has horizontal rows called
“periods.”
Second period
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has horizontal rows called
“periods.”
Third period
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has horizontal rows called
“periods.”
Fourth period
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has horizontal rows called
“periods.”
Fifth period
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has horizontal rows called
“periods.”
Sixth period
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has horizontal rows called
“periods.”
Seventh period
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has horizontal rows called
“periods.”
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The Table has horizontal rows called
“periods.”
We see a gradual
change in the
properties and
reactivities as we
move across a
period. We will
explore this more in
Unit 1b.
The Arrangement of the
Table
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The table is also divided by the type of
element.
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The table is also divided by the type of
element.
There are metals.
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The table is also divided by the type of
element.
There are metals.
There are nonmetals.
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The table is also divided by the type of
element.
There are metals.
There are nonmetals.
There are
metalloids.
The Arrangement of the
Table
• The table is also divided by the type of
element.
The Arrangement of the
Table
Each space in the table
represents an element.
•
Which looks like this:
Each space in the table
represents an element.
•
Which looks like this:
6
C
Carbon
12.011
[He] 2s22p2
Each space in the table
represents an element.
•
Which looks like this:
6
C
Carbon
12.011
[He] 2s22p2
Each symbol in the
space gives
information about the
element.
Each space in the table
represents an element.
•
Which looks like this:
6
C
Carbon
12.011
[He] 2s22p2
Atomic number is the
number of protons in
the nucleus of the
atom.
Each space in the table
represents an element.
•
Which looks like this:
6
C
Carbon
12.011
[He] 2s22p2
The symbol is an
abbreviation of the
name of the element
Each space in the table
represents an element.
•
Which looks like this:
6
C
Carbon
12.011
[He] 2s22p2
The name of the
element
Each space in the table
represents an element.
•
Which looks like this:
6
C
Carbon
12.011
[He] 2s22p2
The average atomic
mass of the element in
nature
Each space in the table
represents an element.
•
Which looks like this:
6
C
Carbon
12.011
[He] 2s22p2
The electron
configuration of the
element in a neutral state
Each space in the table
represents an element.
•
Which looks like this:
However,
elements with no
stable state will
have spaces that
look like this.
Each space in the table
represents an element.
•
Which looks like this:
43
Tc
Technitium
(97.9072)
[Kr] 4d65s1
However,
elements with no
stable state will
have spaces that
look like this.
Each space in the table
represents an element.
•
Which looks like this:
43
Tc
Technitium
(97.9072)
[Kr] 4d65s1
The atomic mass of
the most stable or
most common isotope
of the element in
nature
Each space in the table
represents an element.
•
Which looks like this:
43
Tc
Technitium
(97.9072)
[Kr] 4d65s1
Summary
•
•
•
•
Organized by columns (groups)
Organized by rows (periods)
Organized by type of element (metal,
nonmetal, or metalloid)
Each space gives information about each
element (atomic number, symbol, name,
atomic mass, and electron configuration)
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