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05 lung & pleura2012-01

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05 lung & pleura2012-01
Pleura and Lung
By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem &
Dr. Sanaa Al Sharawi
Objectives
By the end of the lecture, the student should be able to :
• Describe the anatomy of the pleura: (subdivisions
into parietal & visceral pleurae, nerve supply).
• List the parts of parietal pleura and its recesses.
• Describe the surface anatomy of both pleurae and
lungs.
• Describe the anatomy of lungs : (shape, surfaces,
relations, nerve supply, blood supply and lymphatic
drainage.
• Describe the difference between right & left lungs.
• Describe the formation of bronchopulmonary
segments and its main characteristics.
SUFACE ANATOMY OF PLEURA
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Apex:
lies one inch above the medial 1/3 of
the clavicle.
Left pleura:
The anterior margin extends from
sternoclavicular joint to the level of 4th
costal cartilage, then deviates for
about 1 inch to left at 6th costal
cartilage to form cardiac notch.
Right pleura:
The anterior margin extends vertically
from sternoclavicular joint to 6th costal
cartilage.
Inferior margin : passes round chest
wall, on the 8th rib in midclavicular line,
10th rib in mid-axillary line and finally
reaching to the last thoracic spine.
Posterior margin : along the vertebral
column from the apex to the inferior
margin.
SURFACE ANATOMY OF LUNG
• Apex, anterior border
and posterior border
•
•
•
•
•
correspond nearly to the lines
of pleura but are slightly away
from the median plane.
Inferior margin:
as the pleura but more
horizontal and finally reaching
to the 10th thoracic spine.
Oblique fissure:
represented by a line
extending from 3rd thoracic
spine, obliquely ending at 6th
costal cartilage.
Transverse fissure only in
right lung: represented by a
line extending from 4th right
costal cartilage to meet the
oblique fissure.
PLEURA
• It is a closed serous
sac which surrounds
the lung and
invaginated from its
medial side by the root
of lung.
• It has 2 – layers:
parietal pleura which
lines the thoracic
cavity. & visceral pleura
which surrounds the
lung, separated by a
pleural cavity.
• Pleural cavity:
• Contains 5-10 ml. of
serous fluid which
lubricates both sufaces
and allows the lungs to
move free during
respiration.
Divisions of parietal pleura
• 1- Cervical pleura:
It is part of parietal
pleura which protrudes
up into the root of the
neck.
• 2-Costal pleura:
It lines inner surface of
ribs, costal cartilages,
intercostal muscles
and back of the
sternum.
• 3-Diaphragmatic
pleura:
It covers upper surface
of the diaphragm.
• 4-Mediastinal pleura:
It covers mediastinal
surface of the lung.
Visceral Pleura
 firmly covers outer
surfaces of the lung and
extends into its fissures.
 The 2- layers (mediastinal
parietal pleura & visceral
pleura) are continuous
with each other to form a
tubular sheath (pleural
cuff) that surrounding root
of lung (vessels, nerves &
bronchi) in the hilum of
the lung.
 On the lower surface of
root of the lung, pleural
cuff hangs down as a fold
called pulmonary
ligament.
Pleural
Recesses
 Costodiaphragmatic
recess :
lies between costal
& diaphragmatic
parietal pleura along
the inferior border.
 Costomediastinal
recess :
lies between costal
& mediastinal
parietal pleura along
the anterior border.
 The lung reaches these
recesses only in deep
inspiration.
Pleural Effusion
• It is an abnormal
accumulation of pleural fluid
about 300 ml, in the
Costodiaphragmatic recess
•
•
•
•
•
, (normally 5-10 ml of clear
fluid)
Causes:
Inflammation, TB,
malignancy, congestive
heart disease.
The lung is compressed &
the bronchi are narrowed.
Auscultation would reveal
only faint & decreased
breath sounds over the
compressed or collapsed
lung.
Dullness on percussion
over the effusion.
Nerve Supply of Pleura
• Parietal pleura….
• Costal P.P….by
intercostal nerves.
• Mediastinal P.P….by
phrenic nerve.
• Diaphragmatic P.P.:
1-Medially by phrenic
nerve.
2-Peripheral part.. by
lower 6 intercostal
nerves.
• Visceral pleura…
sympathetic N.S.
from pulmonary
plexus.
Blood supply of Pleura
• Parietal pleura… by
intercostal, internal
thoracic &
musculophrenic
vessels.
• Visceral pleura ….by
bronchial vessles.
Lymphatic Drainage:
• Parietal pleura : into
intercostal,,
mediastinal &
diaphragmatic
Lymph Nodes.
• Visceral pleura : into
broncho-pulmonary
Lymph Nodes in the
hilum of the lung.
LUNGS
• Each lung has
the following
features:
• It is conical in
shape.
• It has an apex, a
base and 2
surfaces.
• The costal
surface of each
lung borders the
ribs (front and
back).
• On the medial
(mediastinal)
surface, the
bronchi, blood
vessels, and
lymphatic
vessels enter
the lung at the
hilum.
LUNGS
•
Apex: projects into
root of the neck (one
inch above the
medial 1/3 of the
clavicle).
It is covered by
cervical pleura.
It is grooved
anteriorly by
subclavian artery.
• Base: (inferior=
diaphragmatic
surface) is concave
and sits on the
diaphragm.
Borders: Anterior & Posterior
• Anterior border :
is sharp, thin and
overlaps the
heart.
• Anterior border of
left lung presents
a cardiac notch
at its lower end +
thin projection
called the lingula
below the cardiac
notch.
• Posterior border :
is rounded, thick
and lies beside
the vertebral
column.
Surfaces: Costal & Mediastinal
Lateral & medial surfaces of right lung
• Costal surface:
• Convex.
• Covered by costal pleura
which separates lung from:
ribs, costal cartilages &
intercostal muscles.
• Medial surface:
• It is divided into 2 parts:
• Anterior (mediastinal) part:
• Contains a hilum in the
middle (it is a depression
in which bronchi, vessels,
& nerves forming the root
of lung).
• Posterior (vertebral) part:
• It is related to: bodies of
thoracic vertebrae,
intervertebral discs,
posterior intercostal
vessels & sympathetic
trunk.
RIGHT
LUNG
ROOT
• 2 bronchi lie
posterior.
• Pulmonary
artery is
superior
• 2 Pulmonary
veins are
inferior and
anterior.
LEFT
LUNG
ROOT
• One
bronchus
lies posterior
• Pulmonary
artery is
superior
• 2 Pulmonary
veins are
inferior and
anterior.
Right
lung
• Larger &
shorter than
left lung.
• Divided by
2 fissures
(oblique &
horizontal)
into 3 lobes
(upper,
middle and
lower lobes).
Left
Lung
• Divided by
one oblique
fissure into -2
lobes, Upper
and lower.
• There is No
horizontal
fissure.
• It has a
cardiac notch
at lower part
of its anterior
border.
Mediastinal surface of right lung
Cardiac
impression
• On the mediastinal
surface of the right
lung, you find these
structures:
• Azygos vein and its
arch (posterior and
over the root of the
lung).
• Vagus nerve posterior
to the root.
• Esophagus above and
posterior to the root.
• Phrenic nerve anterior
to the root.
• Cardiac impression:
related to right atrium.
• Below hilum and in
front of pulmonary
ligament:
• Groove for I.V.C.
Mediastinal surface of left lung
Cardiac
impression
• On the mediastinal
surface of the left
lung, you will find
these structures:
• Descending aorta
posterior to the root.
• Vagus nerve posterior
to the root.
• Arch of the aorta over
the root.
• Groove for left
common carotid
artery.
• Groove for left
subclavian artery.
• Phrenic nerve anterior
to the root.
• Cardiac impression :
related to left
ventricle.
Blood supply of lung
• Bronchial arteries (branches of descending
thoracic aorta)….. supply oxygenated blood
to bronchi , lung tissue & visceral pleura.
• Bronchial veins : drain into azygos &
hemiazygos veins.
• Pulmonary artery which carries
non-oxygenated blood from right ventricle to
the lung alveoli.
• 2 pulmonary veins : carry oxygenated blood
from lung alveoli to the left atrium.
Nerve Supply of the lung
• Pulmonary plexus :
• at the root of lung….is formed of autonomic
N.S. from sympathetic & parasympathetic
fibres.
1- Sympathetic F. from ..sympathetic trunk
broncho-dilatation /and vasoconstriction.
2- Parasympathetic F. from….Vagus nerve
…. Broncho-constriction and secretomotor to
bronchial glands /and vasodilatation.
Lymph drainage of the lungs
• There are 2 lymphatic
plexuses…. superficial & deep
plexuses.
• Superficial plexus (subpleural):
lies under the visceral pleura
and drain to bronchopulmonary
nodes in the hilum of lung.
• Deep plexus:
• Lies along the bronchial tree &
pulmonary blood vessels and
drain into the pulmonary nodes
within the lung substance.
• Then into bronchopulmonary
nodes in the hilum of lung.
• Then into the tracheo-bronchial
nodes at the bifurcation of
trachea , and finally into
broncho-mediastinal lymph
trunks to end in thoracic duct
(left) or in right lymphatic duct
(right).
Bronchi
• The trachea divides
into 2 main bronchi:
• Right main
bronchus:
It divides before
entering the hilum,
it gives off superior
lobar (secondary)
bronchus.
On entering hilum, it
divides into middle
& inferior lobar
bronchi.
• Left main bronchus:
On entering hilum, it
divides into superior
& inferior lobar
bronchi.
Bronchial Divisions
• Within the lung each
bronchus divides into
number of branches
that can be divided
into two groups:
I- Conduction zone
branches
Primary (main) bronchi
Secondary (lobar) bronchi
Tertiary (segmental)
bronchi (supply the
bronchopulmonary
segment)
Smaller bronchi
Bronchioles
Terminal bronchioles
II- Respiratory zone
branches
• Respiratory
bronchioles
• Alveolar ducts
• Alveolar sacs
• Alveoli
Bronchopulmonary segments
• They are the
anatomic, functional,
and surgical units of
the lungs.
• Each lobar
(secondary) bronchus
gives off segmental
(tertiary) bronchi.
• Each segmental
bronchus divides
repeatedly into
bronchioles.
• Bronchioles divide into
terminal bronchioles,
which show delicate
outpouchings ‘the
respiratory
bronchioles’.
Bronchopulmonary segments
• The respiratory
bronchioles end
by branching into
alveolar ducts,
which lead into
alveolar sacs.
• The alveolar sacs
consist of several
alveoli, each
alveolus is
surrounded by a
network of blood
capillaries for gas
exchange.
Characteristics of Bronchopulmonary segments
• It is a subdivision of a
lung lobe.
• It is pyramidal in
shaped, its apex lies
toward the root, while its
base lies on the lung
surface.
• It is surrounded by
connective tissue septa.
• It has a segmental
bronchus, a segmental
artery, lymph vessels,
and autonomic nerves.
• The segmental vein lies
in the inter- segmental
C.T. septa between the
segments.
• A diseased segment
can be removed
surgically, because it is
a structural unit.
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