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Dairy Foods and Eggs

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Dairy Foods and Eggs
Dairy Foods and Eggs
Chapter 18
Choosing Dairy Foods
Section 18.1
Types of Milk


Whole milk – 8 g of fat per serving
Reduced-fat milk (2%) – 5 g fat per
serving

Low-fat milk (1%) – 2.5 g fat per serving

Fat-free milk (skim) – only traces of fat
Processing of Milk


Pasteurized – heat treatment that
kills enzymes and harmful bacteria
Homogenization – the process
whereby fat is broken down and
evenly distributed in the milk
Other types of Milk

Buttermilk – tart, buttery flavor with a smooth
thick texture

Cultured – fermented by a harmless bacteria added
after pasteurization

Kefir (kuh-FEER) – a cultured beverage similar in
flavor to yogurt

Chocolate milk – has chocolate or cocoa and
sweetener added

Fat-free dry milk – a powdered form of skim milk.
When reconstituted, it should be handled like
regular milk.
Other types of Milk



Evaporated milk – canned whole or fatfree milk containing half the water of
regular milk
Sweetened condensed milk – a
concentrated, sweetened form of milk
Lactose-free milk – for people with
lactose intolerance

silk
Other Dairy Foods

Yogurt – a thick, creamy, custardlike product with a tangy flavor


made by adding harmless bacteria
culture to milk
Butter – made from milk, cream, or
a combination of both

FDA graded for quality
Grade A
 Grade B

Cheese


Cheese – made from milk curds with the
whey drained off
Ripened Cheese (Aged Cheese)


Made from curds to which ripening agents
have been added (mold, yeast, bacteria)
Unripened Cheese

Made from curds that have not been aged
Cream

Cream – a liquid separated from milk




Heavy Cream – high in fat, whips easily
Light Cream – not as high in fat, often used in
coffee
Half-and-half – half milk, half cream
Sour cream – made by adding lactic acid
bacteria to cream
Frozen Dairy Desserts



Ice Cream – whipped frozen
mixture of milk, cream, sweeteners,
and flavorings
Frozen Yogurt – similar to ice cream
but uses yogurt cultures
Sherbet – made from milk fat,
sugar, water, and flavorings
Storing Dairy

Tightly close milk and cream containers.
They can pick up other flavors.

Store milk away from light. Light destroys
riboflavin.

Keep cheese tightly wrapped.
Storing Dairy

Hard cheese can be frozen, but the
texture will change.

Refrigerate butter up to several weeks.
For longer storage, freeze.

Store ice cream tightly covered in the
freezer.
Preparing Dairy Foods
Section 18.2
Cooking with Milk

Forming a skin –
protein solids clump
together, forming a skin
on the surface. The skin
can trap steam causing
the milk to bubble up
and boil over


To prevent stir the
mixture regularly
Scorching – when milk
solids fall to the bottom
of the pan, they stick
and burn.

To prevent stir the
mixture constantly
Cooking with Milk

Curdling – when milk
separates into curds
and whey. May occur
when milk is heated
with acidic foods, salt,
or high heat.


To prevent use low
temperatures, stir
the mixture, and
combine milk with
acidic foods gradually
Scalded Milk – milk
that is heated to just
below the boiling point
Yogurt in Recipes



Yogurt can be cooked, baked, or frozen.
The active bacteria cultures may not
survive, but the nutrients will be the
same.
Whey may separate from the curd in
yogurt when it is stored. Stir the whey
back into the yogurt before use.
Cook yogurt at moderate temperatures
for only the time needed. If overcooked it
will curdle.
Yogurt in Recipes


To keep yogurt from separating during
cooking blend 1 Tbsp cornstarch with a
small amount of yogurt. Combine with
remaining yogurt and use as directed.
Yogurt can thicken by draining the whey
off.

If left long enough, yogurt will thicken into
cheese
Preparing Cheese


Heat cheese just long enough to
melt it. If overcooked it will be
greasy and stringy.
To speed up cooking time, shred,
grate, or cut cheese into smaller
pieces.
Preparing Cheese


When microwaving cheese use caution.
The fat in it attracts microwaves resulting
in cheese that is hotter than the rest of
the food.
To lower the fat in recipes with cheese,
choose sharp flavored varieties.

They have more flavor so you can use less
cheese.
Egg Basics
Section 18.3
Structure of an Egg



Albumen – a thick,
clear fluid commonly
known as the egg
white
Yolk – the round
yellow portion
Chalazae (kuh-LAHzuh) – twisted,
cordlike strands of the
albumen
Nutrients in Eggs

Eggs are an excellent source of:







Protein
Riboflavin
Iodine
Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Iron
The yolk contains fats and cholesterol
Buying Eggs

USDA grades eggs according to size and
quality


Grades AA, A, and B
 No nutritive difference. The difference is in the
appearance after cooking
 AA and A are used when appearance is
important
Size – Jumbo, Extra Large, Large, Medium
 Egg size is determined by a minimum weight
for a dozen
 Most recipes are designed for large eggs
Storing Eggs





Eggs are highly perishable
Refrigerate eggs in the original carton
Eggs are porous and will pick up other
flavors if stored uncovered
Do not wash eggs, it destroys the natural
coating
Refrigerate leftover egg whites or yolks if
you plan to use them in 2 – 4 days
Preparing Eggs

Eggs are delicate and must be cooked at
moderate temperature



Egg whites shrink and turn rubbery when over
cooked
Yolks toughen and turn gray-green on the
surface when overcooked
Egg whites coagulate (become firm)
before yolks when cooked on the stove

The opposite is true when cooked in the
microwave
Preparing Eggs






Eggs Cooked in Shell – hard or soft
cooked
Fried Eggs – over easy, medium, hard,
sunny side up
Baked Eggs – a.k.a. shirred eggs
Poached Eggs – cooked in a liquid
Scrambled Eggs – beaten with milk or
water then cooked
Omelets – may be filled with a variety of
ingredients
Egg Coloration

The only difference
between white and brown
eggs is the breed of chicken

White eggs = white
feathered chickens

Brown eggs = red
feathered chickens

Red feathered chickens
tend to be bigger, requiring
more feed, so brown eggs
tend to be more expensive
than white
Using Eggs in Recipes
Section 18.4
Custards

Custard – a tender blend of milk and eggs



Base for dishes such as quiche (KEESH)
Stirred custard – cooked on top of the
range and stirred constantly until thick
enough to coat a spoon
Baked custard – baked in the oven. It has
a firm, delicate consistency.

Bain Marie = water bath
Separating Eggs

Separating the yolk from the whites

3 ways

1. Use an egg separator

2. Use the shell

3. Use your hands
Beating Egg Whites

Incorporating air into
egg whites


Done when preparing
dishes such as soufflé
Peaks


Soft – the peaks
bend over slightly
when the beaters are
lifted
Stiff – peaks are
glossy and hold their
shape
Meringues


Meringue (muhrANG) – a foam of
beaten egg whites
and sugar
Hard – made by
beating eggs to
stiff peak stage

If undercooked
they will be sticky
& chewy
Meringues

Soft – made by
beating eggs to
soft peak stage


Spread over hot
pre-cooked pie
filling
Should touch crust
all around to avoid
shrinking during
baking
Meringues

Weeping – when liquid
accumulates between
the filling and the
meringue


Caused be not dissolving
sugar completely or not
beating to soft peak
stage
Beading – golden
droplets of moisture that
form on the surface of
the meringue

Caused be not dissolving
sugar completely or oven
set too high
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