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Research Methodology SCIENTIFIC METHOD

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Research Methodology SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Research Methodology
SCIENTIFIC METHOD

‘Science’ refers to the body of systematic and organised
knowledge which makes use of scientific method to acquire
knowledge in a particular field of enquiry.

Scientific method is the systematic collection of data (facts) and
their theoretical treatment through proper observation,
experimentation and interpretation.

Scientific method attempts to achieve a systematic interrelation of
facts by experimentation, observation, and logical arguments from
accepted postulates and a combination of these three in varying
proportions.
What Is Research?
• “A combination of investigation of past work and
effort in the present that will help others in the
future”
• A set of opposites
– Fun and frustration ‫متعة واحباط‬
– Small steps and large insights
– Building on others’ work and contributing your own work
• Finding or developing something new that changes
the world….
What is Research?
• Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
– Quantitative – use of statistical, formulaic or
numerical analysis to generate results
• Main approach: analysis; causal determination,
prediction ‫ تنبؤ‬, generalization of findings
• Results: “This solution is N% better”
– Qualitative – not quantitative; use of non-numeric
techniques
• Main approach: discovery; illumination, understanding,
extrapolation ‫ استقراء‬to similar circumstances
• Results: “This is a new way of solving our problem”
CRITERIA OF A GOOD RESEARCH
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Purpose clearly defined.
Research process detailed.
Research design thoroughly planned.
High ethical standards applied.
Limitations frankly revealed.
Adequate analysis for decision maker’s needs.
Findings presented unambiguously ‫ ال لبس فيها‬.
Conclusions justified.
Researcher’s experience reflected.
What Isn’t Research
•
•
•
•
Playing with technology
Book report
Programming project
Doing what others have already done
• However, each of these can be done as part of
research
Who Does Research?
• Individuals
• Teams
• Teams almost always make the process easier
– Division of labor ‫تقسيم العمل‬
– Feedback from team members ‫ردود فعل من اعضاء الفريق‬
– Each member can work to own strengths
Formulating a Research Problem
•
Researchers organize their research by formulating ‫ صياغة‬and defining a research problem.
This helps them focus the research process so that they can draw conclusions reflecting the
real world in the best possible way.
The first step in the research process – definition
of the problem involves two activities:
Identification / Selection of the Problem
This step involves identification of a few problems and selection
of one out of them, after evaluating the alternatives ‫تقييم البدائل‬
against certain selection criteria.
Formulation of the Problem


Formulation is the process of refining the research ideas into
research questions and objectives.
Formulation means translating ‫ ترجمة‬and transforming
‫وتحويل‬the selected research problem/topic/idea into a
scientifically researchable question. It is concerned with
specifying exactly what the research problem is.
Hypothesis ‫الفرضية‬
• Null hypothesis: a hypothesis which a researcher tries to disprove.
Normally, the null hypothesis represents the current view/explanation of
an aspect of the world that the researcher wants to challenge.
Example:
• H0: There is no relationship between a family’s income and expenditure on recreation.
• Research hypothesis: Research methodology involves the researcher
providing an alternative hypothesis as an alternate way to explain the
phenomenon.
Example:
• HA: There is a definite relationship between family’s income and expenditure on
recreation.
• Tests of hypothesis: The researcher test the hypothesis to disprove the
null hypothesis, not because he/she loves the research hypothesis, but
because it would mean coming closer to finding an answer to a specific
problem. The research hypothesis is often based on observations that
evoke suspicion that the null hypothesis is not always correct.
Variables ‫المتغيرات‬
• A variable is something that changes.
• Researchers are often seeking to measure
variables.
– Independent variable: is the variable which the
researcher would like to measure (the cause).
– Dependent variable: is the effect (or assumed
effect), dependent on the independent variable.
Categories of research
Empirical research ‫ تجريبي‬and theoretical research
Basic research and Applied research
Empirical
 Observational research ‫ارصادي‬
 Experimental research ‫تجريبي‬
Basic (pure) research
 It is usually considered to involve the search for knowledge without a defined goal
of utility or specific purpose.
 Basic research is driven by a scientist's curiosity or interest in a scientific question.
The main motivation is to expand man's knowledge , not to create or invent
something. There is no obvious commercial value to the discoveries that result
from basic research.
 For example, basic science investigations probe for answers to questions such as:
–
–
–
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How did the universe begin?
What are protons, neutrons, and electrons composed of?
How do slime molds reproduce?
What is the specific genetic code of the fruit fly?
 Most scientists believe that a basic, fundamental understanding of all branches of
science is needed in order for progress to take place. In other words, basic
research lays down the foundation for the applied science that follows. If basic
work is done first, then applied spin-offs often eventually result from this research.
Applied Research
•
It is problem oriented and is directed towards a defined and purposeful end.
•
Applied research is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world,
rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge's sake. One might say that the
goal of the applied scientist is to improve the human condition .
•
For example, applied researchers may investigate ways to:
– improve agricultural crop production
– treat or cure a specific disease
– improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices, or modes of transportation
•
Some scientists feel that the time has come for a shift in emphasis away from
purely basic research and toward applied science. This trend, they feel, is
necessitated by the problems resulting from global overpopulation, pollution, and
the overuse of the earth's natural resources
The Gray Zone – The distinction between
basic and applied research
• How long will it be before some practical
application results from the research ?
– If a practical use is only a few years away, then the
work can be defined as strictly applied research.
– If a practical use is still 20-50 years away, then the
work is somewhat applied and somewhat basic in
nature.
– If a practical use cannot be envisioned in the
foreseeable future, then the work can be
described as purely basic research.
Applied vs. Basic Research
• Some basic scientific research has no foreseeable practical
value other than "knowledge for knowledge's sake".
• Many technological, medical, and scientific breakthroughs
were made possible only due to the knowledge gained by
prior basic research.
• Discussion Questions:
– Can our nation afford to spend millions of dinars on research that may
have no practical benefit?
– Should universities concentrate on basic research, or should they be
allowed to concentrate on research programs that might be more
profitable in the end?
– Should Parliament be allowed to tell the Ministry of HE&SR and
universities what types of scientific research should be supported?
Research Process (Methodology)
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Initial Idea
Background Investigation
Refinement of Idea
Core Work
– Investigation and Development
– Documentation
– Prototype (if appropriate)
• Evaluation
• Identification of Future Work
• Presentation
SAMPLE OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS
My research methodology requires gathering relevant data from the specified documents and
compiling databases in order to analyze the material and arrive at a more complete
understanding and historical reconstruction of the lives of selected female scholars. I
hope to shed light on the following questions through my research:
1) How did female scholars obtain their education?
a) How important were factors such as kinship networks and socio-economic status in
providing women access to their education?
b) To what extent did women attend classes with other students and/or was their training
obtained through private tutoring?
2) Did religious rules regarding veiling, seclusion, and women’s mobility in the public sphere
affect the physical circumstances of women’s education? For example, did women interact
directly with male students and teachers in formal educational settings, or did they
participate through informal spheres such as gatherings in homes, mosques, libraries, and
literary salons?
3) Are there any indications of a curriculum—or a set course of study— that a woman had to
complete before gaining recognition as a hadīth transmitter or as a legal scholar? What
credentials qualified women to interpret Islamic law or to transmit hadīth ? And how do
these compare to the credentials and curricula of contemporary male scholars?
4) To what extent did female scholars obtain an education in a range of religious sciences
beyond hadīth transmission, such as Islamic law, Qur’ānic exegesis, or poetry?
This project will utilize both quantitative and qualitative data collection tools, but is rooted in a
qualitative epistemological position that recognizes the importance of locating the research
within a particular social, cultural, and historical context. It also takes seriously the social
construction of these contexts and the identities participants construct within them
SAMPLE OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS: Data Collection
Data collection will consist of surveys, classroom observations and interviews with
[host country] teachers, as well as journal logs from teachers.
Initially, a survey instrument to measure teacher attitudes and beliefs regarding
professional roles and responsibilities will be administered to a broad spectrum of
participants (ideally, n=300). Subsequently, a purposeful sample will be identified to
participate in the second round of data collection.
A structured observation protocol will be developed to aid in field note collection and
an interview protocol rooted in the literature will be developed to act as a guide for
the semi-structured interviews. Multiple interviews are planned with each participant
in order to provide more in-depth data collection and opportunities for follow-up. The
goal is to interview approximately 20 participants who embody a range of identity
positions and who come from different schools and communities.
I will work with [host country] teacher training programs, and with faculty at the
Research Centre in [host city], to identify potential participants. I will also ask
teachers to respond to a series of journal prompts over the course of the project that
allow them to provide a more detailed and longitudinal view of their daily lives as
teachers—their experiences, reactions, beliefs, and ideas about their roles and
responsibilities as educators
Classification of Epidemiologic studies
Experimental or
Observational studies
Descriptive
studies
Analytical studies
Surveys
(questionnaire or
others)
Ecological or
correlational
studies
Case studies
Cross-sectional or
prevalence studies
Correlational
studies
Case-control or
case-reference
studies
Cohort or followup studies
intervention studies
Randomised
controlled trials or
clinical trials
Field trials or
community
intervention studies
Community trials
Example of Survey research:
Journal of Heredity. 1983, 74:39-42
Analysis of the human sex ratio
Factors influencing family size in Libya
M. A. F. Al-Rubeai, Amina S. Abdulla and Elmer Gray
University of Garyounis P.O. Box 9480, Benghazi, Libya
Western Kentucky University Bowling Green, KY 42101
Abstract
In 1981, data were obtained on sex of children and family size for 502 University of Garyounis, Benghazi,
Libya, students and their parents. Secondary sex ratios (males: 100 females) were 105.1 for the parental
and 106.7 for the present generations. Average numbers of children per family were 10.67 (5.48 males, 5.19
females) and 7.77 (4.01 males, 3.76 females) for the parental and present generations, respectively.
Average number of children per family was influenced by level of formal education of the parents, especially
that of the mother. The percentages of families stopping with three, four, five, and six children were greater
when both sexes were present than when existing children were of the same sex; however, these
differences associated with combinations of sexes were not significant. The lack of significant correlations
between sexes of children within families, the absence of consistent patterns of significant chi-squares in the
factorial analysis of associations between sexes of different births, and the agreement between observed
and expected frequencies of sexes of children within families indicated a high degree of independence
between sexes of children within families of the Libyan population.
© 1983, American Genetic Association
Al-Kafaji S. and Al-Rubeai M. (1976)
Frequencies of the ABO and Rh blood
groups in the Kurdish population of
Iraq. Ann. Human Biology (London) 3.
identify
problem
publication
Literature
review
Plan
research
design
Report
writing
Generalisation
interpretation
Determining
sample size
Procedural steps in research
Hypothesis
testing
Write
protocol
Presentation
&analysis of
results
Pilot study and
main study
Ethical
committee
approval
Research Process – Initial Idea
• Stems from critical thinking ‫تفكير ناقد‬
• Be on the lookout for and open to seeing problems
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Gaps in framework
Repetitive behavior that’s slightly different (and can be generalized)
Manual solutions (that can be automated)
Inelegant solutions
• Ask questions
– “Is something missing here?”
– “Can this be done in a better way?”
– “Is there a need for a new approach?”
• Should be an area you’re interested in, as:
– You’ll be spending a lot of time with it
– It won’t always be easy/fun to continue…
Research process
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Specifying study design
Selection of measures: many measure ,assessments
Eg.: self report rating scales for fear, observations, interviews, stand questionnaires
simple rating scale can be given a no.
1-strongly agree
2-agree
3-undecided
4-disagree
5-strongly disagree
May not exist for the study, this may necessitate the development of new scale.
should possess Reliability and validity
Selection of sample:
– Sampling techniques-in order to provide information, can be generalised to cover the whole
population.
Writing a protocol: aims & objectives, method, materials, sample, procedure
Ethical approval
Pilot work
Main study
Analysis of results
Report writing
publication
Flowchart:
Steps in the
development of
a health systems
research
proposal
Planners and Gantt Charts
Research Process –
Background Investigation
• Given an idea, need to determine:
– Has this work been done previously?
– What similar work has been done leading up to this point?
– How is any previous work distinguished from what I’m
planning to do?
– What group of people will be positively impacted by the
research?
• Tools
– Literature Review using library resources
• online databases such as IEEE:
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/dynhome.jsp
– WWW search
• Google scholar
• HINARI- WHO access to research publications:
http://extranet.who.int/hinari/en/journals.php
Research Process –
Refinement of Idea ‫صقل الفكرة‬
• Based on background investigation, need to
refine idea
• Issues:
– Precision – focus on precisely identifying:
• Problem
• Possible solutions (plural!)
– Scope – need to “build fences”
• What’s an essential part of this work? (fence in)
• What’s tangential ‫تماسي‬, additional, or for any other
reason best left for later/someone else? (fence out)
Research Process – Core Work,
Investigation and Development
• Provide yourself with infrastructure
– equipment / software
– additional knowledge (“get up to speed”)
• Do the work
– Experimentation (scientific process)
– Develop opinions
– Look for better ways of solving problem
• Can you generalize?
• Can you develop a framework?
– Discuss, brainstorm ‫عصف ذهني‬
– Reevaluate as you proceed
• Look for improvements, changes to your original ideas
Research Process – Core Work,
Investigation and Development (2)
• Process
– Work regularly
• Easier to keep going if have a commitment to a regular
work time
• Helps you keep your past work in mind
– Allocate large block of time for research
• Takes time to get going/back to speed
• Make sure can do something significant each work
session
Research Process –
Core Work, Documentation
• Need to document as you go
– Don’t want to lose any information. Important for patent litigation
• 1) Maintain a journal for day-to-day thoughts
– Can be paper, electronic, ...
– Keep it with you at all times
• Never know when good ideas will hit
• 2) Keep an updated task list
– Focus on accomplishing something each work session
• 3) Write up your work
– Periodically, write a few pages on a subset of your work
• Summarize work, accomplishments, problems
– At end, write up a summary document
• Can be based on steps discussed here
Research Process –
Core Work, Prototype
• Need to demonstrate the merit of your ideas
• If work is non-theoretical, do this through a
developed system
– No need to build the entire system
– Just need to demonstrate the value of the core
ideas
How to Analyse Data?
• Need to consider the type of data collected
– Categorical
– Continuous
– Mixed
Categorical Data
• Types of data which may be divided into groups.
• Examples are race, sex, age group, and educational
level.
• Some variables may be considered in a numerical
manner by using exact values, it is often more
informative to categorize such variables into a
relatively small number of groups.
• Analysis of categorical data generally involves the use
of data tables.
Categorical Data
• A two-way table presents categorical data by counting the number of
observations that fall into each group for two variables, one divided into
rows and the other divided into columns.
• For example, suppose a survey was conducted of a group of 20 individuals,
who were asked to identify their hair and eye colour. A two-way table
presenting the results might appear as follows:
Eye Colour
Hair Colour
Blue
Green
Brown
Black
Total
----------------------------------------------------Blonde
2
1
2
1
6
Red
1
1
2
0
4
Brown
1
0
4
2
7
Black
1
0
2
0
3
----------------------------------------------------Total
5
2
10
3
20
What are some of the tests used
on categorical data?
• Chi-squared test to determine the relationship
between variables
• Fisher’s test to compare two unpaired groups
• Wilconxon test to compare one group to a
hypothetical value
• Kruskal-Wallis test to compare three or more groups
• Spearman test to compare association between
variables
Smoking statistics
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Smoking statistics - Smoking and cancer
Percentage of population who smoke
Smokers by age
Smokers by socio-economic group
Smokers by ethnic group
Smokers by geographical region
Childhood smokers
Secondhand smoke
Continuous Data
• Data that can take any value (within a range)
• Can be measured on a measurement scale that can be subdivided into ever-smaller measurements limited only by the
measurement or recording system.
• Examples of continuous data include time, temperature, age,
height, length, weight etc.
Discrete probability distribution
Normal distribution
What are some of the tests used
on continuous data?
• T test to compare one or two groups
• ANOVA to compare three or more groups
• Pearson test to compare the association
between variables
Checklist for presenting quantitative data analysis
• Do the results that you have presented relate to your original
research question/s?
• Have you included all the results you need to support your
argument?
• Have you included results that are not needed?
• Have you commented on all of the results?
• Have you used to best presentation of your results (tables,
graphs, diagrams, words)
• Have you labelled all of your tables and figures?
• Have you referred to all your tables and figures in the main
text? If not, do you really need them?
Research Process - Evaluation
• “The greatest sin is judgment without knowledge”
• Perhaps the most difficult part….
– Best if can show others are already using your work
• Quantitative
– Test your prototype
– What improvements exist over currently available
alternative?
– How much of an improvement do you see?
• Qualitative
– What can you do now that couldn’t be done before?
– What are the benefits of your solution?
Research Process –
Identification of Future Work
• Helps you organize any future efforts
• Helps others build on your work
• Sources:
– What you excluded in your idea refinement
– New problems that have surfaced during your
work
Research Process - Presentation
• It’s not a contribution to the field if no one
knows about it or can use it
• Presentation/Dissemination
– Conferences, Journals, Web
– Papers, Talks, Poster Sessions
Conference/ lecture Presentation
Connecting with the audience
• Ensure opening capture the interest and
attention
• Engage audience
• Phrase and pause
• Talk to individuals
• Get agreement
• Encourage students to ask questions
• Use students’ names as often as possible
Conference/ lecture Presentation
Connecting with the audience
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Consider yourself honoured
Give sincere appreciation
Mention names
Say “we” not “you”
No apologetic language
Establish eye contact
Smile
Move around and interact rather than reading from notes
Be confident in your delivery and interaction
Keep an eye on the audience's body language
Conference/ lecture Presentation
Delivery
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Speak clearly
Don't rush, or talk deliberately slowly
Use deliberate pauses at key points
Change the tone of delivery
Use hand movements to emphasise points
Exhibit enthusiasm about the topic
Project your voice or use a microphone if necessary
Use a variety of audiovisual media.
Inject the presentation (or materials) with humour
Conference/ lecture Presentation
Things to avoid
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Standing in a position where you obscure the screen
Getting lost in an overhead
Excesses (of movement, enthusiasm, hand gestures etc)
Repetitive words or phrases that may become distracting
The use of fillers (such as “um,” “er,” or “you know”)
Reading from dense slides verbatim
Gaudy colour schemes, distracting sounds or visuals in slides
Preparation
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Start with the end in mind
Research material
Make brief notes
Use examples and analogies
Be open (discuss your ideas with friends or
colleagues)
• Practice (everywhere except in front of a
mirror)
Methods of data presentation
• Use of visual graphics
– Studies reveal:
• 75% of what we learn and remember comes from
ocular stimulation
– So…
• the more visual a presentation, the more will be
retained.
Used correctly, visual communication tools
and techniques can:
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focus a group’s attention
help a discussion stay on the agenda
stimulate interest
improve message comprehension
increase retention rates
explain complex facts and processes
reinforce key points
make abstract ideas concrete
leave a lasting impression
impart a professional image
add variety and emphasis to a presentation.
Used improperly, the same tools can ...
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Bore
Alienate
Confuse
Overwhelm
Inhibit communication
Fail dismally
Using graphics
.......to convey a message effectively
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Can you read it? Is it legible, easy to read? Things like fonts, colour choices, labelling and
organisation should be noted here.
Can you understand it? Does it make sense? If the point of making a quality graph is the
ability to tell a story with pictures, then the goal of a grapher is to make the subject easier to
understand.
Does it stand alone? How much explanation does the visual require? Usually the less
explanation needed, the more effective the visual. That means that the best graphs can stand
alone, letting the image speak for itself, or it could drive home the point of the article in which
it was included.
Points to remember
• Graphics should stimulate thinking
• Use a graphic if it can’t be put in a table or
adds more value as a graphic
• Graphics are useful for portraying trends,
relationships and comparisons
• Maximise the data to ink ratio –do not waste
ink
• Minimise chart or graphic junk
When using graphics
•
•
•
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Ensure graphic has a heading
Label the components of your graphic
Indicate data source
Use the graphic to work for you –sort the
data, or add labels, use colour
Confusing Graphics
• You want to plot the relationship
between weight and pulse rate. You
consider gender and activity level to
be crucial to understanding this
relationship, so you include them as
grouping variables. The resulting
graph is a mess of different symbol
types and regression lines.
Before: Relationships within and
between the groups in this scatterplot
are difficult to see.
After: Panelling separates the observations
by group for easier comparison.
Excellent graph presentation
Excellent graph presentation
Innovation Forum for Mobility & Digital Security
CORRELATIONAL RELATIONSHIP
Positive correlation
• When the values of TWO
variables “go together”
or
• values on X & Y change
in SAME DIRECTION
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Hr
work
Earnin
gs
Sigma Plot- Linear Regression
120
100
0.8904
R2
P 0.0564
Earnings
80
60
40
20
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
Hours work
The correlation coefficient, r, quantifies the direction and magnitude of correlation
Perhaps the best way to interpret the value of r is to square it to calculate r2. Statisticians call this quantity the coefficient of
determination, but scientists call it r squared.
Negative Correlation
• When the values of two
variables CO-VARY in
Opposite direction
120
100
80
• (as one goes up, the other
goes down)
60
40
20
0
Hrs
work
Earnin
gs
Sigma Plot- Linear Regression
60
R2 1.0000 P
0.00
50
Earnings
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
30
40
Hours Work
50
60
70
Manage your time
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Define your objectives: these need to be specific, measurable and set within a time-frame.
Define the tasks you need to complete to achieve your objectives.
Identify key tasks, set deadlines - and keep to them!
Monitor your progress and set new goals. If you don't meet a goal within the time you have
set don't be discouraged; this is part of your learning-perhaps the time allotted was
unrealistic, or the goal was not specific enough.
Build reporting requirements (confirmation report, yearly progress reports) into your task
structure.
When allotting time, try to envisage possible obstacles/delays (eg. survey distribution, visas
for travel, equipment breakdowns or time restrictions).
If you confront a delay to candidature (for reasons such as family, health, employment) it may
be a good idea to apply for official intermission of candidature to extend the expiry of
candidature date.
There will be times when you will feel tired or unable to concentrate. Be prepared to use
those times for practical tasks, such as filing, record keeping, bibliographic referencing, etc.
Never waste time that you've allocated for your project!
Research ethics and being a
responsible researcher
• Research ethics proposal proforma
– The following proforma from Sheffield Hallam
University is typical of the kinds of form. If this is
not an institutional requirement for you, you
might still want to fill it in as it will encourage you
to think very carefully about the ethical
implications of your research
RESEARCH ETHICS PROPOSAL
Name of researcher:
Email address:
Title of research:
Supervisor:
Briefly describe the rationale for your research with reference to the research literature (approx. 250 words).
State the major research questions including the aim(s) and hypothesis(es) where appropriate.
Describe the method including the design, participants, and procedure.
Describe the type of data analysis you envisage using.
Describe the arrangements for selecting/sampling and briefing potential
participants. This should include copies of any advertisements for volunteers or letters to individuals/organisations inviting
participation.
Describe any possible negative consequences of participation in the research along with the ways in which these consequences
will be limited. This should include details where appropriate of any withholding of information or misleading of participants along
with a justification of why this is necessary.
Describe how participants will be made aware of their right to withdraw from the research. This should also include information
about participants' right to withhold information.
Describe the arrangements for obtaining participants' consent. This should include copies of the information that they will receive
& written consent forms where appropriate. If children or vulnerable people are to be participants in the study details of the
arrangements for obtaining consent from those acting in loco parentis or as advocates should be provided.
If you intend to undertake research with children or other vulnerable participants does the data collection involve you being alone
with the participant(s)? Please provide details.
If your data collection requires that you work alone with children or other vulnerable participants have you undergone Criminal
Records Bureau screening? Please supply details.
Describe the arrangements for debriefing the participants. This should include copies of information that participants will receive
where appropriate.
Describe the arrangements for ensuring participant confidentiality. This should include details of how data will be stored and how
results will be presented.
Consent forms
A consent form is something you can use with your research participants to ensure that they are clear about what
they are getting involved in. The form below, used at Sheffield Hallam University, can be used and adapted for
your own project (but check first whether your own institution has similar templates for you to work with).
TITLE OF STUDY:
Please answer the following questions by circling your responses:
Have you read and understood the information sheet about this study? YES NO
Have you been able to ask questions about this study? YES NO
Have you received enough information about this study? YES NO
Do you understand that you are free to withdraw from this study? YES NO
At any time? YES NO
Without giving a reason for your withdrawal? YES NO
Your responses will be anonymised before they are analysed.
Do you give permission for members of the research team to have access to your anonymised responses? YES
NO
Do you agree to take part in this study? YES NO
Your signature will certify that you have voluntarily decided to take part in this research study having read and
understood the information in the sheet for participants. It will also certify that you have had adequate opportunity
to discuss the study with an investigator and that all questions have been answered to your satisfaction.
Signature of participant:............................ Date:.................
Name (block letters):....................................................
Signature of investigator:........................... Date:.................
THESIS PREPARATION
for graduate studies
• An M.Sc. Thesis in
general is from 70 - 120
pages in length. A Ph.D.
thesis in general is from
150 - 200 pages in
length. Ph.D. and M.Sc.
thesis manuscripts
should be written under
the following
headings/components:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
TITLE PAGE
ABSTRACT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES (where applicable)
LIST OF PLATES (where applicable)
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF APPENDICES (where applicable)
Section I INTRODUCTION
Section 2 METHODOLOGY
Section 3 RESULTS
Section 4 DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS,
RECOMMENDATIONS
REFERENCES
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS AND ABSTRACTS
APPENDICES (as necessary)
Dissertation Pattern
•
Most dissertations are organised in the timehonoured pattern:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Introduction
Review of the literature
Methodology
Results
Summary and discussion
The Focused Review of the
Literatures
• Proposal – a research contract that spells out
the details of your research plan.
• Prospectus – a preliminary sketch of the
proposal
• Both need the focused review of the
literatures
Evaluate the Literatures
1.
2.
3.
4.
Check the author.
Check the title.
Check the date.
Note the source.
(importance)
5. Check the document
type.
6. Read the abstract.
• Code 1 = “must-have”
source
• Code 2 = “maybe
helpful” source
• Code 3 = “not useful”
source
Points to be kept in mind while
reviewing literature..
 Read
relevant literature.
 Refer original works.
 Read with comprehension.
 Read in time.
 Index the literature.
Examine the Research Problem
•
•
•
Explain the research problem clearly.
Explain your personal interest.
Explain its professional significance:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Tests a theory.
Contributes toward the development of theory.
Extends existing knowledge.
Tests prevailing beliefs.
Suggests relationships between phenomena.
Extends a research methodology.
Provides greater depth of knowledge about previously studied
phenomena.
An Effective Approach to Writing
• Develop a writing schedule that will help you
write systematically and effectively. You can’t
write while you’re watching the baby, doing
the laundry, or watching television.
• Arrange for the help you will need: a
professional word processor, a good editor.
Professors are scholars, not editors.
Document Assertions
• The journalist writes: “Experts now believe
that most large employers will soon be
providing child-care services for working
parents.”
• The scholars writes: “According to several
studies, a large percentage of the companies
employing more than 1,000 employees
provide some form of child care for working
parents (see, for example, the Murphy 1997
survey).”
The Way You Identify Sources
• According to Walker (1998), parents reported
satisfaction ...
• Walker (1998) concluded that ...
• Parents reported a high level of satisfaction with the
charter schools their children attended (Walker,
1998).
• Several studies conclude that parents are generally
satisfied with the charter school their children
attended (see, for example, Jones, 1996; King, 1990;
Walker, 1998).
• In the 1998 study by Walker ...
Write Clear, Mature Sentences
1. Combine shorter sentences.
Too short: Gray (1998) studied the
effectiveness of the new schedule. He used
scores on the Stanford Achievement Test as
the measure.
Combined: Gray (1998) studied the
effectiveness of the new schedule, using
scores on the Stanford Achievement Test as
the measure.
Chapter 1: Statement of the
problem
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
General background of the study
Problem statement
Professional significance of the problem
Overview of the methodology
Delimitations of the study
Definitions of key terms
Organization of the dissertation
Chapter 2: A review of the
literature
• An overview of how the chapter is organized
• Review of the theoretical and empirical
literature, organized according to one of
certain patterns
• A summary of what the previous research
seems to mean and how it relates to this study
Chapter 3: The methodology of the
study
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A description of the general methodology
The research context or site
The subjects or participants
The instruments and materials used
The procedures followed
The data analyses made
A summary statement of the methodology
Chapter 4: The results of the study
• An overview of the chapter
• A presentation of the results, organized in
terms of how the problem statement was
posed in the first chapter
• A summary in general terms of the results
obtained
The summary & Abstract
• A summary of the results, organized in terms of how the problem
statement was posed
– Write the Introductory Paragraph
“As an aid to the reader, this final chapter of the dissertation restates the research
problem and reviews the major methods used in the study. The major sections of this
chapter summaries the results and discuss their implications.”
– Restate the Problem and Review the Methodology
– Summarize the Results
• Abstract
– The abstract is a summary limited to 350 words.
– You should state the problem and briefly indicate the methodology. You also should
summarize the results.
– “If I were a researcher trying to decide if this dissertation is worth retrieving, what
would I want to know?”
Writing a Grant Proposal:
Preliminary Questions
What is the specific question?
Is the idea novel?
Do your resources (i.e. facilities, equipment
personnel, patient population, time, motivation)
make this a realistic project for your centre at this
time?
Is the answer of sufficient importance?
What funding agency is most appropriate?
Applicant
Grant Application
Funding Organisation
Reviewers
Summary
Statement
Applicant
Scientific Review
Group
The Review Criteria
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Significance. Does this study address an important problem? If the aims of the
application are achieved, how will scientific knowledge be advanced? What will be the
effect of these studies on the concepts or methods that drive this field?
Approach. Are the conceptual framework, design, methods, and analyses adequately
developed, well-integrated, and appropriate to the aims of the project? Does the applicant
acknowledge potential problem areas and consider alternative tactics?
Innovation. Does the project employ novel concepts, approaches, or methods? Are the
aims original and innovative? Does the project challenge existing belief or develop new
methodologies or technologies?
Investigator. Is the investigator appropriately trained and well suited to carry out this
work? Is the work proposed appropriate to the experience level of the principal
investigator and other researchers, if any?
Environment. Does the scientific environment in which the work will be done contribute
to the probability of success? Do the proposed experiments take advantage of unique
features of the scientific environment or employ useful collaborative arrangements? Is
there evidence of institutional support?
BBSRC
Research Grant Application Referee’s Report Form
• Knowledge of Applicant/Scientific Area
• Overall Assessment
– Scientific Excellence
– Strategic Relevance
– Prosperity and Quality of Life
– Timeliness and Promise
• Specific Comments
In addition to the criteria, applications are
reviewed for the following:
• Reasonableness of the proposed budget and
duration relative to the research.
• Adequacy of the protection for humans,
animals, or the environment.
• Adequacy of a plan to share data, if
appropriate.
The Title
Make it specific and captivating
“An alternative means to detect
osteoporosis”
VS
“ Osteoporosis : A rapid inexpensive
office screening test for early
detection ”
Hypothesis
• Should be clearly stated in one or
two Sentences
• Do not make reviewers look for it
Objective
•
Define one or two specific objectives
• Do not try to answer too many questions
• (most important problems are answered
one question at a time)
Background
• Your opportunity to convince the reviewers that you are up-to-date
and conversant in your field of enquiry
• Concise, thorough, well referenced review
• Preliminary data may strengthen your Proposal
• Should lead to the logical conclusion that your proposed question
needs to be answered !!!
References
• Include
full reference
-Author, title, vol., pages, year
• Reviewers have been chosen for their critical
thinking ability and will seldom accept a statement
contrary to their own perception without
determining your source of information
Research Design
Describe
• Facilities and resources
• Study population
• Methodology
• Sample size determination
• Data management
• Statistical analysis
Budget
• Must be reasonable, itemized, justified
• Document expenses with copies of
proposed charges, maintenance contracts,
etc.
• Give degree of overlap with other grants
(either submitted or funded)
How to write a CV
(Curriculum Vitae)
What is a CV?
• From Wikipedia;
"A Curriculum Vitae is a document that contains a
summary or listing of relevant job experience and
education. The résumé or CV is typically the first item
that a potential employer encounters regarding the
job seeker and is typically used to screen applicants,
often followed by an interview, when seeking
employment."
But a CV is more than simply a summary of your
achievements.
CV
• Should emphasize the training and
experience of investigators
• Should not be embellished (peer reviewed
publications important)
• When you first create a CV have another
researcher critically review your method
To make the most of any study
opportunity your CV should:
• Market and sell you by clearly representing your work
history, skills and experience.
• Have its content free of spelling and grammatical errors.
• Use the document format all universities prefer.
• Always be sent with an effective and meaningful covering
letter.
• Made easily and readily available for PhD applications.
• Make a good impression by detailing your capabilities and
strengths in a positive way.
Curriculum Vitae Format
• Name, address & email
• Personal Information: Date of Birth, Place of Birth, Citizenship, Gender
• Education: List your academic background, including undergraduate and
graduate institutions attended.
– Graduate Institution, City
– Degree, Major, Date of Graduation, Dissertation
• Employment history: List in chronological order, include position details
and dates.
• Postdoctoral training: List your postdoctoral experiences, if applicable.
• Fellowships: List internships and fellowships, including organization, title
and dates.
• Licenses/ certification: List type of license, certification or accreditation
and date received.
• Publications: Books, Refereed journals, Conferences
• Professional affiliations
• Skills / Interests
Wendy Stephens
15 Green Cross Road, Dover, Kent, DV2 3YZ.
Tel: (01321) 612786
E-mail: [email protected]
Date of Birth: 6th February, 1983
Education
PhD in Computer Science, University of Kent 2005-2008
Thesis Title: Identification of Ambimorphic Modalities in Data Mining Systems (Funded by EPSRC bursary)
Supervisors: Dr A. Turing and Professor A. Lovelace
Brief Synopsis of Research:
Many computer scientists would agree that, had it not been for local-area networks, the emulation of link-level acknowledgements might never have
occurred. The notion that cyberneticists cooperate with highly-available modalities is often good. We instrumented a deployment on the KGB's network
to quantify topologically scalable epistemologies's impact on J. Quinlan's study of Ambimorphic Modalities. This configuration step was time-consuming
but worth it in the end. Had we emulated our Planetlab overlay network, as opposed to deploying it in a controlled environment, we would have seen
degraded results in Data Mining. Our method also stores ambimorphic modalities. eliable systems are particularly theoretical when it comes to embedded
methodologies. It is always a significant objective but fell in line with our expectations.
During my PhD I have also led seminars, supervised undergraduates in the laboratory and taken a course on "Effective Tutoring and Assessment".
Research Interests:
My current research centres around the random behaviour of fuzzy epistemologies
2002 - 2005 BSc (Hons) Computer Science, University of Kent.
Upper Second Class Honours.
Modules included: Structured Programming, Software Engineering (Including Object Oriented Theory), Networks and Communication Systems
Group project on database design. I achieved well above average marks for this project.
1995 - 2002 Folkestone High School
2002 A-levels: Chemistry B, Computer Science B, Maths C
2000 GCSE’s: 8 including Maths and English and German, all at grades A to C
Employment
2008 - 2009 Research Assistant, Dept. of Computer Science , University of Kent, Canterbury, UK
I work as part of Professor J. Andrews research group in the field of the influence of replicated archetypes on complexity theory. My work involved the
testing of a novel heuristic for the significant unification of evolutionary programming (SortesHeal), disproving that lambda calculus and erasure coding
are regularly incompatible.
July 2004 - September 2004 Tesco (Shop Assistant)
Duties involved taking orders and stock control, generally dealing with customers and organising other assistants. I built a strong positive relationship
with customers and staff
Skills
General skills in research project management and data analysis. Specific expertise and interests in:
Computing Skills:
•Applications: Microsoft Office Suite, Internet Explorer, Paint Shop Pro, Dreamweaver and several e-mail packages.
•Programming Languages: C#, Java, Prolog, Perl, SQL, and HTML.
•Operating Systems: Unix, Windows Vista, Windows XP
Teaching Skills:
•Postgraduate Demonstrator. Regularly supervise practicals for undergraduate students and have supervised the undergraduate research projects of
2 final year students.
•Have lead several seminars for undergraduates in the computer science department.
Time Management
•It was important to complete my PhD within 3 years and this I did successfully. I also met without fail, the many deadlines in my teaching and
supervisory duties. I have extensive experience of juggling different tasks and bringing these to a successful conclusion.
Other skills
•Knowledge of research methodologies
•Statistical software: extensive experience with SAS.
•Data and information collection
•Writing and presenting reports
•Full current clean driving licence
•I have a reasonable understanding of written German.
Interests
I enjoy rugby and was a member of the Kent University Rugby Club. The latter involved participating in activities, such as raising money for charity
events, for example, in RAG week. I also enjoy current affairs and traveling.
References
Dr Alan Turing (PhD Supervisor)
Department of Computer Science
University of Kent
Canterbury
Kent CT2 7NJ
Professor Ada Lovelace
Department of Computer Science
University of Kent
Canterbury
Kent CT2 7NJ
APPENDIX
Detailed Synopsis of PhD
The roadmap of the research is as follows. Primarily, we explored the need for Smalltalk. we placed our work in context with the existing work in this
area. To answer this question, we demonstrated that interrupts and interrupts are largely incompatible. Similarly, to answer this obstacle, we argued
that although congestion control can be made collaborative, concurrent, and event-driven, the Ethernet and vacuum tubes are regularly incompatible.
Many computer scientists would agree that, had it not been for local-area networks, the emulation of link-level acknowledgements might never have
occurred. It might seem perverse but fell in line with our expectations. The notion that cyberneticists cooperate with highly-available modalities is often
good . To what extent can write-ahead logging be constructed to realize this ambition?
While previous solutions to this problem are promising, none have taken the pervasive method we propose here. Despite the fact that conventional
wisdom states that this challenge is entirely solved by the simulation of cache coherence, we believe that a different approach is necessary. The
disadvantage of this type of method, however, is that IPv6 and Boolean logic are often incompatible. The disadvantage of this type of method, however,
is that multicast solutions and link-level acknowledgements are rarely incompatible. Combined with e-commerce, such a hypothesis improves an
analysis of vacuum tubes .
We prove that Internet QoS can be made event-driven, robust, and wireless. The basic tenet of this method is the deployment of the producer-consumer
problem. Despite the fact that prior solutions to this obstacle are bad, none have taken the permutable approach we propose in this work. While it might
seem perverse, it is derived from known results. Without a doubt, it should be noted that Herte runs in W( n ) time. Therefore, we see no reason not to
use e-business to emulate authenticated models.
We question the need for the analysis of active networks. Despite the fact that conventional wisdom states that this riddle is entirely answered by the
refinement of SCSI disks, we believe that a different approach is necessary. Although such a hypothesis is mostly a compelling goal, it fell in line with
our expectations. Similarly, this is a direct result of the construction of local-area networks. However, this solution is mostly satisfactory. Nevertheless,
this approach is never adamantly opposed. Combined with checksums, such a claim deploys a novel methodology for the improvement of 4 bit
architectures.
Conferences, Presentations and Courses Attended
•Research Council Graduate School, November 7th - 12th 2006.
•Ergonomics Society Group Meeting, Nottingham, February 2005, presented poster.
Publications/Conference Papers
•Turing, A., Andrews, J. & Stephens, W. Decoupling Markov models from suffix trees in scatter/gather I/O. Journal of Knowledge-Based, Optimal
•Technology 82 (2007), 57-60.
•Harris, I., and & Turing, A. Simulating consistent hashing using perfect methodologies in POT the Workshop on Data Mining and Knowledge
•Discovery (Dec. 2006).
•Babbage, C. & Turing, A.,. Visualizing the Turing machine using embedded archetypes. Journal of Embedded Configurations 25 (Nov. 2007), 85-102.
Awards, Fellowships, and Grants
•EPSRC Research Bursary 2005 - 2008
•Burroughs Wellcome Computational Equipment Grant, (2008 - 2009)
•NSC Travel Grant to FARO Advanced Study Institute, 2007
Professional Memberships
•Student member of the British Computer Society
Top ten tips to remember when writing a
Covering letter
•
The covering letter should consist of 1 page on plain white A4 paper.
•
You should use a font that offers a clean and clear appearance. My advice is to use Arial.
•
Aim for a maximum of three paragraphs. Remember simple is best.
•
Use upbeat and positive language and avoid exaggerated statements.
•
Ensure there are no spelling, grammar, or punctuation mistakes.
•
Express yourself with confidence.
•
Where possible, write to a named individual.
•
Your cover letter should be tailored specifically for each application.
•
Be concise and to the point. Try to avoid repeating what's in your CV.
Your contact details
This should include your name, address and email address. Remember make it easy for the university to contact you.
University details
This should include whom the letter is going to, University/supervisor name and full address. If you know the name of
the person then use it. If no particular name was mentioned use a department title e.g. Head of Department.
Date
You should use long date format in full e.g. 27th April 2006 and not 27/4/06
Salutation & Opening
If you know the name use it e.g. Dear Dr Smith. If you don’t know, use Dear Sir/Madam. It is preferable to use a name.
The University’s web site is often a good place to search for the appropriate individual.
Letter title
Centre and bold the text. This will enable the addressee to know immediately that this is an application
Paragraph 1 – Why you are writing
You want to try & get the interest of the supervisor. You should start the letter with the reason for writing and indicate
the degree and course that you are applying for. This is also a good place to tell then why you are interested in doing
PhD and convey a genuine interest in the University and course. The University website will be a good source of
background information.
Paragraph 2 – What you can offer them
Here you describe briefly why you think you should be considered for a PhD position. You should summarise relevant
qualifications for the degree along with your experience and skills. Also give details of your scholarship. Try to make
sure that it is not just a list of what is in your CV but is individualised to the PhD application.
Paragraph 3 – Summary and next step
Refer to your enclosed CV. It is also important that you thank the reader for their time and consideration and tell them
that you look forward to hearing from them.
Closing
Use “Yours sincerely” if you are sending the letter to a named person, otherwise use “Yours faithfully”. Add a few blank
lines and finish with your name. The space between is used for your signature once printed.
Dear Sir/Madam,
Please accept my application for the position of PhD in xx. I have an MSc in xx
from yy and a BSc in xx from yy. I have gained solid background and practical
skills while obtaining my two previous degrees and a considerable
understanding for handling various domain areas in biomedical engineering.
Therefore, I am confident that this would ease my learning and contribution on
this research project.
I work well in teams; I am reliable and organised, and enthusiastic to learn. I am
sure that I will carry over the same enthusiasm and skill in doing this PhD. I
know that my academic background will prove to be an effective match for your
demands. Therefore, I would like to have the opportunity to develop my abilities,
for which I am confident that I have the skills, knowledge and competence.
Thank you for your time and consideration and I look forward to hearing from
you.
Yours Sincerely,
xx
Dear Prof. Al-Rubeai,
I am a Biotech Engineering student from Tecnologico de Monterrey (ITESM) at Monterrey, Mexico.
For a year and a half, I have been working in an industry-colaboration research project for the high
yeald production of Mab's in CHO cells. My project consists basically on the optimization of culture
parameters, including bioreactor-operation ones as well as culture media formulation.
I have been following very closely the articles issued by your research group on several journals,
and I have found them very interesting as well as inspiring for new ideas. Unfortunately, the
resources we have the FEMSA Biotechnology Center-where I work- are not enough as for trying
them all.
For instance, I have been experimenting with several culture media supplementations and
measuring the cell growth and specific productivity obtained therefore; however, I strongly believe
that a metabolomic analysis would give us hints about what is going on with the metabolism of our
cells. Similarly, our experiments have been carried as batch or fed batch, but ideally the industrial
production process would be done in a perfusion bioreactor...up to my knowledge, I haven't found
reported a complete characterization of what would happend with the specific productivity of the
cells (now without the problem of nutriments depletion or accumulation of toxic side-products).
Moreover, we haven't even tried with miRNA strategies.
I am looking for pursuing my career through research and I am very excited about this field. I was
wondering if there is any open place for a PhD at your research group. If we could have a little talk
about some of the project ideas that I have, it would be great. Here attached you will find my CV.
Hoping to hear from you soon,
>>>>>>>
Dr. ^^
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
The University of ^
Dear Dr ^^:
I am writing you to apply for a postdoctoral scholar positions at your research group, which is related to my research
experiences. Your group reputation for excellence in organic chemistry research gives me a strong impression and I would love
to join it if I have the chance.
Now, I am working on "%%" project at Department of Chemical Engineering (Dr && Lab), Michigan University and will be
available by September 2009.
Having studied the "%%" research, I want to study the %%. And I also want to learn %% in your lab.
As noted in my biographic sketch, before joining MU, I worked for my Ph D with research on "%%, and for my BS with
research on "&&".
A copy of my biographic sketch with referees and my research interests and accomplishment is enclosed. If you need
additional materials or information, I am happy to supply it.
I look forward to learning more about this interesting opportunity and exploring the fit with my experience. I would be pleased to
answer any quick questions you have by telephone (XXX), and of course I would like to meet with you in person.
I believe that my perseverance and enthusiasm could help me success in the research at your lab. I will be very grateful if you
can give me a chance.
Thank you very much for your consideration and looking forward to hearing back from you.
Sincerely,
XXX XX
Enclosure: CV
Examples of Good and Bad
Research Proposals
Example of a Cover Letter for Submission of a Paper
to a Journal for Possible Publication
Pay-to-publish journals
•
•
•
•
•
Some open access journals are fake journals publish any paper for Dollars (e.g.
Journals from Bentham Science Publishers)
Libraries and authors need to be careful to prevent abuse of their funds
under the traditional model… the revenues of the journal were directly linked to
the journal’s ability to publish quality research. As quality increases so individual
and institutional subscribers.
Instead, under the pay-to-publish model, the revenues of the journal are linked
directly to manuscript acceptances and largely (although I admit not entirely)
independent of the quality of the accepted manuscripts. All pay-to-publish
journals get paid each time a manuscript is published regardless of the quality of
the manuscript).
Make sure that the journal is:
–
–
–
Established and reputed
Impact factor?
Indexed in SCIENCE CITATION, PubMed, Web of Science, Biosis etc.
The impact factor
• Often abbreviated IF, is a measure reflecting the
average number of citations to articles published in
science and social science journals.
• It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative
importance of a journal within its field, with journals
with higher impact factors deemed to be more
important than those with lower ones.
• The impact factor is highly discipline-dependent.
The h-index
•
•
An index that attempts to measure
both the productivity and impact of
the published work of a scientist or
scholar. The index is based on the set
of the scientist's most cited papers
and the number of citations that they
have received in other people's
publications. The index can also be
applied to the productivity and impact
of a group of scientists, such as a
department or university or country.
The index works properly only for
comparing scientists working in the
same field; citation conventions differ
widely among different fields.
Example
• My current project
• An example for each of you
– choose a subject you’re interested in
– think of a problem or issue you see in that area
– refine your interest to a possible project that involves one
or more ways of solving that problem
– outline the steps you’d take to do the project work and
test your ideas
– what is your hypothetical conclusion?
– how would you evaluate the quality of your solution?
Fly UP