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No Child Left Behind - Eastern Illinois University

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No Child Left Behind - Eastern Illinois University
No Child Left Behind’s Impact on
Career and Technical Education
Julie Chadd, Ph.D., Eastern Illinois University
Karen Drage, Ph.D., Eastern Illinois University
Funded by Illinois University Council for CTE
Background
• The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001
•
•
•
•
Increased accountability for results
More flexibility in using federal funds
Proven teaching methods
More choices for parents and students
Need for Study
• CTE will lose enrollment unless leaders can
clearly show
• Contribute to academic success measured by tests
• Serve as motivation to stay in school and perform
better in academic courses (Daggett, n.d.)
• Survival may depend upon ability to be
recognized as effective force in helping students
and schools meet goals
Illinois’ Primary Goals
• All students will reach high standards in reading
and math by 2013-2014
• All students will graduate from high school
Purpose
• Contribute to a better understanding of impact
NCLB has had on CTE programs
• Attempt to describe perceptions of principals and
CTE teachers on how NCLB has impacted
programs
• Determine how CTE programs are trying to meet
goals of legislation
Research Questions
• What are the perceptions of high school
principals related to the benefits of CTE in
helping high schools achieve the goals of
NCLB?
• What are the perceptions of high school CTE
teachers related to the benefits of CTE in helping
high schools achieve the goals of NCLB?
• How are business courses able to help high
schools meet the goals of NCLB?
Response Rate
• Initial mailing and one follow-up mailing
• 133 Principals – 26.65%
• 128 Teachers – 25.65%
• Used in data analysis
• 123 Principals – 24.64%
• 114 Teachers – 22.85%
In which content area do you teach?
•
•
•
•
•
Agriculture – 5%
Business – 44%
Family & Consumer Sciences – 19%
Health Occupations – 7%
Technology – 25%
CTE courses help to prepare students to
take standardized tests that assess
English language arts
Strongly Agree or Strongly Disagree
Agree
or Disagree
Principals
74%
26%
CTE Teachers
78%
22%
CTE courses help to prepare students to
take standardized tests that assess
math
Strongly Agree or Strongly Disagree
Agree
or Disagree
Principals
86%
14%
CTE Teachers
90%
10%
CTE courses can help meet the goal of
“all students will reach high standards,
at a minimum of attaining proficiency or
better in reading and mathematics”
Strongly Agree or Strongly Disagree
Agree
or Disagree
Principals
87%
13%
CTE Teachers
91%
9%
CTE courses can help meet the goal of
“all students will graduate from high
school”
Strongly Agree or Strongly Disagree
Agree
or Disagree
Principals
96%
4%*
CTE Teachers
96%
4%*
*Only item that no principal or teacher selected Strongly Disagree
NCLB has had a positive impact on CTE
enrollment at your school
Strongly Agree or Strongly Disagree
Agree
or Disagree
Principals
63%
37%
CTE Teachers
11%
89%
NCLB has had a positive impact on the
image of CTE at your school
Strongly Agree or Strongly Disagree
Agree
or Disagree
Principals
8%
92%
CTE Teachers
15%
85%
English LA ILS can easily be incorporated
into many CTE courses offered at your
school
Strongly Agree or Strongly Disagree
Agree
or Disagree
Principals
79%
21%
CTE Teachers
89%
11%
Math ILS can easily be incorporated into
many CTE courses offered at your school
Strongly Agree or Strongly Disagree
Agree
or Disagree
Principals
89%
11%
CTE Teachers
98%
2%
Developmental reading activities can
easily be incorporated into many CTE
courses offered at your school
Strongly Agree or Strongly Disagree
Agree
or Disagree
Principals
85%
15%
CTE Teachers
89%
11%*
*No teacher selected Strongly Disagree
How has the enrollment in CTE courses
in your school changed since NCLB was
enacted in 2002?
Increased
Decreased
Principals
8%
35%
Stayed
About
Same
54%
CTE Teachers
13%
30%
55%
What activities or teaching approaches
do you use that help students reach high
standards in reading?
•
•
•
•
Read aloud
Read silently
Write book reports
Discuss business section
of newspaper
• Review article
• Summarize text
• Outline readings
•
•
•
•
Proofread documents
Read in groups
Read journal articles
Respond to higher-order
thinking questions on
exams
• Write research papers
What activities or teaching approaches
do you use that help students reach high
standards in math?
• Calculations
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Interest on loans
Percentages
Taxes
Dividends
Payroll deductions
Grades
Cost of credit
• Apply math concepts to
everyday living
• Complete math scenarios in
computer programming
• Develop budget
• Calculate cost of running
business
• Complete daily math mind
teasers
• Create formulas and
functions in spreadsheets
• Complete stock market
projects
What activities or teaching approaches
do you use that will lead to more
students graduating from high school?
•
•
•
•
Real-life applications
Hands-on learning
Job shadowing
Opportunity to excel in
course creates
motivation
• High expectations
• Use multiple learning
styles
• Activities and
expectations parallel
workplace
• Team work
• Problem solving
• Career decision making
• Analyze values
• Goal setting
How often do you incorporate ___ into
your lessons?
Daily
3 or 4 times 1 or 2 times
a week
a week
Never
ILS English/LA
25%
26%
38%
11%
ILS Mathematics
Developmental
Reading
Activities
27%
22%
46%
5%
20%
24%
47%
9%
Additional comments regarding the
impact of NCLB on CTE - Teachers
• “Being new to this school (my 2nd year) this
survey is drawing attention to some areas I
should work to improve”
• “I believe that many law makers do not realize
the impact Vocational Ed has on society at large”
Additional comments regarding the
impact of NCLB on CTE - Teachers
• “I am concerned about the future of electives
because the state is mandating more science,
English, and math and this could affect how
many electives a student will have time for”
Additional comments regarding the
impact of NCLB on CTE - Teachers
• “NCLB is not preparing the students for life. In the CTE
courses, the students learn not only by reading and by
doing math problems but actually taking it one step
further and applying it to everyday situations”
• “The more emphasis placed on academic areas without
practicality, the lower test scores will be produced. What
we need are better vocational programs”
Additional comments regarding the
impact of NCLB on CTE - Principals
• “As graduation requirements increase, CTE
classes get the squeeze. Only the strong
community-supported programs will survive and
even that is no guarantee”
• “Due to increasing requirements for math and
science, our CTE courses will suffer from
reduced enrollment. We may have to cut staff”
Additional comments regarding the
impact of NCLB on CTE - Principals
• “NCLB has goals that will never be met by any
district. CTE programs are jeopardized because
of NCLB. Too many people in education have
tunnel vision and are unaware of how students
can achieve a meaningful education”
Additional comments regarding the
impact of NCLB on CTE - Principals
• “NCLB hurts, not helps, CTE. Sadly these
courses are often played down, and the truth is
that many students depend upon these courses
for career moves. Students need these courses.
I wish that people would realize not all students
do, and are able, to go to college”
Additional comments regarding the
impact of NCLB on CTE - Principals
• “They could be a great resource to reinforce and
apply academic skills. A new outlook by staff
where they realize this role is necessary.
Evaluate curriculum and build more lessons to
do this”
Additional comments regarding the
impact of NCLB on CTE - Principals
• “We have incorporated reading and mathematics
across the curriculum- even in CTE courses.
However, CTE was already using the math and
reading extensively before that decision. CTE
courses are necessary for kinesthetic learners”
Conclusions
• Participants believe CTE has ability to help
schools meet high academic standards
• Participants believe CTE is able to help students
graduate from high school
Recommendations
• CTE teaching methods should undergo process
required to show they meet rigorous standards
and yield positive results outlined in NCLB
• CTE teachers must be made aware of
importance of incorporating core academic areas
• CTE teachers should identify academic learning
standards addressed in each of their classes
Recommendations (cont.)
• CTE teachers must learn how to document
academic integration
• Documentation must be shared with
administrators, schools boards, and legislators
• State results should be evaluated to determine if
enrollment in CTE courses affects students’
scores
Your comments/thoughts???
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