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Chapter 5 - Force and Motion

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Chapter 5 - Force and Motion
Chapter 5 Lecture
physics
FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS
a strategic approach
THIRD EDITION
randall d. knight
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 5 Force and Motion
Chapter Goal: To establish a connection between
force and motion.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-2
Chapter 5 Preview
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Slide 5-3
Chapter 5 Preview
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Slide 5-4
Chapter 5 Preview
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Slide 5-5
Chapter 5 Preview
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Slide 5-6
Chapter 5 Preview
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Slide 5-7
Chapter 5 Reading Quiz
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Slide 5-8
Reading Question 5.1
What is a “net force?”
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
The weight excluding the container.
The vector sum of all forces in a problem.
The vector sum of all forces acting on an object.
The vector force applied by a net.
The vector sum of all forces that add up to zero.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-9
Reading Question 5.1
What is a “net force?”
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
The weight excluding the container.
The vector sum of all forces in a problem.
The vector sum of all forces acting on an object.
The vector force applied by a net.
The vector sum of all forces that add up to zero.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-10
Reading Question 5.2
Which of the following are steps used to identify the
forces acting on an object?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Draw a closed curve around the system.
Identify “the system” and “the environment.”
Draw a picture of the situation.
All of the above.
None of the above.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-11
Reading Question 5.2
Which of the following are steps used to identify the
forces acting on an object?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Draw a closed curve around the system.
Identify “the system” and “the environment.”
Draw a picture of the situation.
All of the above.
None of the above.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-12
Reading Question 5.3
Which of these is not a force discussed in this chapter?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
The tension force.
The orthogonal force.
The normal force.
The thrust force.
None of the above.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-13
Reading Question 5.3
Which of these is not a force discussed in this chapter?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
The tension force.
The orthogonal force.
The normal force.
The thrust force.
None of the above.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-14
Reading Question 5.4
What is the name of a diagram used to show all forces
acting on an object?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Motion diagram.
Interaction diagram.
Free-body diagram.
Second-law diagram.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-15
Reading Question 5.4
What is the name of a diagram used to show all forces
acting on an object?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Motion diagram.
Interaction diagram.
Free-body diagram.
Second-law diagram.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-16
Chapter 5 Content, Examples, and
QuickCheck Questions
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Slide 5-17
What Is a Force?
 A force is a push or a pull.
 A force acts on an object.
 Pushes and pulls are applied
to something.
 From the object’s
perspective, it has a force
exerted on it.
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Slide 5-18
What Is a Force?
 A force requires an agent,
something that acts or exerts
power.
 If you throw a ball, your hand
is the agent or cause of the
force exerted on the ball.
 A force is a vector.
 To quantify a push or pull, we
need to specify both
magnitude and a direction.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-19
What Is a Force?
 Contact forces are forces
that act on an object by
touching it at a point
of contact.
 The bat must touch the
ball to hit it.
 Long-range forces are forces that act
on an object without physical contact.
 A coffee cup released from your hand
is pulled to the earth by the long-range
force of gravity.
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Slide 5-20
QuickCheck 5.1
A ball rolls down an incline and
off a horizontal ramp. Ignoring
air resistance, what force or
forces act on the ball as it moves
through the air just after leaving
the horizontal ramp?
A.
The weight of the ball acting vertically down.
B.
A horizontal force that maintains the motion.
C.
A force whose direction changes as the direction of motion
changes.
D.
The weight of the ball and a horizontal force.
E.
The weight of the ball and a force in the direction of motion.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-21
QuickCheck 5.1
A ball rolls down an incline and
off a horizontal ramp. Ignoring
air resistance, what force or
forces act on the ball as it moves
through the air just after leaving
the horizontal ramp?
A.
The weight of the ball acting vertically down.
B.
A horizontal force that maintains the motion.
C.
A force whose direction changes as the direction of motion
changes.
D.
The weight of the ball and a horizontal force.
E.
The weight of the ball and a force in the direction of motion.
The answer will be deferred until later.
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Slide 5-22
Tactics: Drawing Force Vectors
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Slide 5-23
Example: Drawing a Force Vector
A box is pulled to the right by a rope.
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Slide 5-24
Example: Drawing a Force Vector
A box is pushed to the right by a spring.
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Slide 5-25
Example: Drawing a Force Vector
A box is pulled down by gravity.
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Slide 5-26
Combining Forces
 A box is pulled by two ropes, as
shown.
 When several forces are exerted
on an object, they combine to
form a net force given by the
vector sum of all the forces:
 This is called a superposition
of forces.
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Slide 5-27
QuickCheck 5.2
The net force on an object points
to the left. Two of three forces
are shown. Which is the missing
third force?
A.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
B.
C.
D.
Slide 5-28
QuickCheck 5.2
The net force on an object points
to the left. Two of three forces
are shown. Which is the missing
third force?
A.
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B.
C.
Vertical
components cancel
D.
Slide 5-29
Gravity
 The pull of a planet on an
object near the surface is
called the gravitational
force.
 The agent for the
gravitational force is the
entire planet.
 Gravity acts on all objects,
whether moving or at rest.
 The gravitational force
vector always points
vertically downward.
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Slide 5-30
Spring Force
 A spring can either push (when compressed) or pull
(when stretched).
 Not all springs are metal coils.
 Whenever an elastic object is flexed or deformed in
some way, and then “springs” back to its original
shape when you let it go, this is a spring force.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-31
Tension Force
 When a string or rope or wire pulls
on an object, it exerts a contact
force called the tension force.
 The tension force is in the
direction of the string or rope.
 A rope is made of atoms
joined together by molecular
bonds.
 Molecular bonds can be
modeled as tiny springs
holding the atoms together.
 Tension is a result of many
molecular springs stretching ever so slightly.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-32
QuickCheck 5.3
A steel beam hangs from a cable as a crane lifts
the beam. What forces act on the beam?
A. Gravity.
B. Gravity and tension in the cable.
C. Gravity and a force of motion.
D. Gravity and tension and a force of motion.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-33
QuickCheck 5.3
A steel beam hangs from a cable as a crane lifts
the beam. What forces act on the beam?
A. Gravity.
B. Gravity and tension in the cable.
C. Gravity and a force of motion.
D. Gravity and tension and a force of motion.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-34
QuickCheck 5.4
A book rests on a horizontal table. Gravity pulls down
on the book. You may have learned something in a
previous physics class about an upward force called
the “normal force.” Deep in your heart, do you really
believe the table is exerting an upward force on the
book?
A. Yes, I’m quite confident the table exerts an
upward force on the book.
B. No, I don’t see how the table can exert such a
force.
C. I really don’t know.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-35
Normal Force
 When an object sits on a table,
the table surface exerts an upward
contact force on the object.
 This pushing force is directed
perpendicular to the surface,
and thus is called the
normal force.
 A table is made of atoms
joined together by molecular bonds which can be
modeled as springs.
 Normal force is a result of many molecular springs
being compressed ever so slightly.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-36
Examples of Normal Force
 Suppose you place your
hand on a wall and lean
against it.
 The wall exerts a horizontal
normal force on your hand.
 Suppose a frog sits on an
inclined surface.
 The surface exerts a tilted
normal force on the frog.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-37
Kinetic Friction
 When an object slides along
a surface, the surface can
exert a contact force which
opposes the motion.
 This is called sliding
friction or kinetic friction.
 The kinetic friction force is directed tangent to the
surface, and opposite to the velocity of the object
relative to the surface.
 Kinetic friction tends to slow down the sliding motion
of an object in contact with a surface.
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Slide 5-38
QuickCheck 5.5
A bobsledder pushes her sled across horizontal snow
to get it going, then jumps in. After she jumps in, the
sled gradually slows to a halt. What forces act on the
sled just after she’s jumped in?
A. Gravity and kinetic friction.
B. Gravity and a normal force.
C. Gravity and the force of the push.
D. Gravity, a normal force, and kinetic friction.
E. Gravity, a normal force, kinetic friction, and the
force of the push.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-39
QuickCheck 5.5
A bobsledder pushes her sled across horizontal snow
to get it going, then jumps in. After she jumps in, the
sled gradually slows to a halt. What forces act on the
sled just after she’s jumped in?
A. Gravity and kinetic friction.
B. Gravity and a normal force.
C. Gravity and the force of the push.
D. Gravity, a normal force, and kinetic friction.
E. Gravity, a normal force, kinetic friction, and the
force of the push.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-40
Static Friction
 Static friction is the contact
force that keeps an object
“stuck” on a surface, and
prevents relative motion.
 The static friction force is
directed tangent to the
surface.
 Static friction points opposite
the direction in which the
object would move if there
were no static friction.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-41
Drag
 Kinetic friction is a resistive
force, which opposes or
resists motion.
 Resistive forces are also
experienced by objects
moving through fluids.
 The resistive force of a fluid is called drag.
 Drag points opposite the direction of motion.
 For heavy and compact objects in air, drag force is
fairly small.
 You can neglect air resistance in all problems
unless a problem explicitly asks you to include it.
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Slide 5-42
Thrust
 A jet airplane or a rocket has a thrust force pushing
it forward during takeoff.
 Thrust occurs when an engine expels gas
molecules at high speed.
 This exhaust gas
exerts a contact
force on the engine.
 The direction of
thrust is opposite
the direction in
which the exhaust
gas is expelled.
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Slide 5-43
Electric and Magnetic Forces
 Electricity and magnetism, like
gravity, exert long-range forces.
 Atoms and molecules are made
of electrically charged particles.
 Molecular bonds are due to the
electric force between these
particles.
 Most forces, such as normal force
and tension, are actually caused
by electric forces between the
charged particles in the atoms.
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Slide 5-44
Symbols for Forces
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Slide 5-45
Tactics: Identifying Forces
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Slide 5-46
Tactics: Identifying Forces
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Slide 5-47
EXAMPLE 5.1 Forces on a Bungee Jumper
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Slide 5-48
EXAMPLE 5.2 Forces on a Skier
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Slide 5-49
EXAMPLE 5.3 Forces on a Rocket
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Slide 5-50
QuickCheck 5.1
A ball rolls down an incline and off
a horizontal ramp. Ignoring air resistance,
what force or forces act on the ball as it
moves through the air just after leaving
the horizontal ramp?
A.
The weight of the ball acting vertically down.
B.
A horizontal force that maintains the motion.
C.
A force whose direction changes as the direction of motion
changes.
D.
The weight of the ball and a horizontal force.
E.
The weight of the ball and a force in the direction of motion.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-51
QuickCheck 5.1
A ball rolls down an incline and off
a horizontal ramp. Ignoring air resistance,
what force or forces act on the ball as it
moves through the air just after leaving
the horizontal ramp?
A. The weight of the ball acting vertically down.
B.
A horizontal force that maintains the motion.
C.
A force whose direction changes as the direction of motion
changes.
D.
The weight of the ball and a horizontal force.
E.
The weight of the ball and a force in the direction of motion.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-52
What Do Forces Do? A Virtual Experiment
 Attach a stretched rubber band to a 1 kg block.
 Use the rubber band to pull the block across a
horizontal, frictionless table.
 Keep the rubber band stretched by a fixed amount.
 We find that the block moves with a constant
acceleration.
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Slide 5-53
What Do Forces Do? A Virtual Experiment
 A standard rubber band
can be stretched to some
standard length
 This will exert a
reproducible spring force
of magnitude F on
whatever it is attached to
 N side-by-side rubber
bands exert N times the
standard force: Fnet = NF
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-54
What Do Forces Do? A Virtual Experiment
 When a 1 kg block is
pulled on a frictionless
surface by a single
elastic band stretched
to the standard length,
it accelerates with
constant acceleration a1.
 Repeat the experiment
with 2, 3, 4, and 5 rubber
bands attached side-by-side.
 The acceleration is directly proportional to the
force.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-55
What Do Forces Do? A Virtual Experiment
 When a 1 kg block is
pulled on a frictionless
surface by a single
elastic band stretched
to the standard length,
it accelerates with
constant acceleration a1.
 Repeat the experiment
with a 2 kg, 3 kg
and 4 kg block.
 The acceleration is inversely proportional to
the mass.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-56
What Do Forces Do? A Virtual Experiment
 Force causes an object to accelerate!
 The result of the experiment is
.
 The basic unit of force is the newton (N).
 1 N = 1 kg m/s2.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-57
QuickCheck 5.6
A cart is pulled to the right with a
constant, steady force. How will
its acceleration graph look?
A.
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B.
C.
Slide 5-58
QuickCheck 5.6
A cart is pulled to the right with a
constant, steady force. How will
its acceleration graph look?
A.
B.
C.
A constant force produces a constant acceleration.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-59
Approximate Magnitude of Some Typical Forces
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Slide 5-60
Inertial Mass
 An object with twice the amount of matter accelerates
only half as much in response to the same force.
 The more matter an object has, the more it resists
accelerating in response to the same force.
 The tendency of an object to resist a change in its
velocity is called inertia.
 The mass used in a = F/m is called inertial mass.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-61
Newton’s Second Law
 When more than one
force is acting on an
object, the object
accelerates in the
direction of the net
force vector
.
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Slide 5-62
Newton’s Second Law
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Slide 5-63
QuickCheck 5.7
A constant force causes an object to accelerate at
4 m/s2. What is the acceleration of an object with
twice the mass that experiences the same force?
A. 1 m/s2.
B. 2 m/s2.
C. 4 m/s2.
D. 8 m/s2.
E. 16 m/s2.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-64
QuickCheck 5.7
A constant force causes an object to accelerate at
4 m/s2. What is the acceleration of an object with
twice the mass that experiences the same force?
A. 1 m/s2.
B. 2 m/s2.
C. 4 m/s2.
D. 8 m/s2.
E. 16 m/s2.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-65
Newton’s First Law
 Newton’s first law is also known as the law of inertia.
 If an object is at rest, it has a tendency to stay at rest.
 If it is moving, it has a tendency to continue moving
with the same velocity.
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Slide 5-66
Newton’s First Law
 An object on which the net
force is zero is said to be in
mechanical equilibrium.
 There are two forms of
mechanical equilibrium:
• If the object is at rest, then
it is in static equilibrium.
• If the object is moving
with constant velocity, it
is in dynamic equilibrium.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-67
QuickCheck 5.8
An object on a rope is lowered at constant speed.
Which is true?
A.
The rope tension is greater than the object’s weight.
B.
The rope tension equals the object’s weight.
C. The rope tension is less than the object’s weight.
D. The rope tension can’t be compared to the object’s
weight.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-68
QuickCheck 5.8
An object on a rope is lowered at constant speed.
Which is true?
Constant velocity
Zero acceleration
A.
The rope tension is greater than the object’s weight.
B. The rope tension equals the object’s weight.
C. The rope tension is less than the object’s weight.
D. The rope tension can’t be compared to the object’s
weight.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-69
QuickCheck 5.9
An object on a rope is lowered at a steadily
decreasing speed. Which is true?
A. The rope tension is greater than the object’s weight.
B. The rope tension equals the object’s weight.
C. The rope tension is less than the object’s weight.
D. The rope tension can’t be compared to the object’s weight.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-70
QuickCheck 5.9
An object on a rope is lowered at a steadily
decreasing speed. Which is true?
Decreasing downward velocity
Acceleration vector points up
points up
A. The rope tension is greater than the object’s weight.
B. The rope tension equals the object’s weight.
C. The rope tension is less than the object’s weight.
D. The rope tension can’t be compared to the object’s weight.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-71
Inertial Reference Frames
 If a car stops suddenly,
you may be “thrown” forward.
 You do have a forward
acceleration relative to the car.
 However, there is no force
pushing you forward.
This guy thinks there’s a force hurling him
into the windshield. What a dummy!
 We define an inertial reference frame as one in
which Newton’s laws are valid.
 The interior of a crashing car is not an inertial
reference frame!
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Slide 5-72
Inertial Reference Frames
 A physics student
cruises at a constant
velocity in an airplane.
 A ball placed on the
floor stays at rest
relative to the airplane.
 There are no horizontal forces on the ball, so
when
.
 Newton’s first law is satisfied, so this airplane is an
inertial reference frame.
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Slide 5-73
Inertial Reference Frames
 A physics student is
standing up in an
airplane during takeoff.
 A ball placed on the
floor rolls toward the
back of the plane.
 There are no horizontal forces on the ball, and yet the
ball accelerates in the plane’s reference frame.
 Newton’s first law is violated, therefore this airplane is
not an inertial reference frame.
 In general, accelerating reference frames are not
inertial reference frames.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-74
Thinking About Force
 Every force has an agent which causes the force.
 Forces exist at the point of contact between the agent and the
object (except for the few special cases of long-range forces).
 Forces exist due to interactions happening now, not due to
what happened in the past.
 Consider a flying arrow.
 A pushing force was
required to accelerate
the arrow as it was shot.
 However, no force is needed
to keep the arrow moving
forward as it flies.
 It continues to move because of inertia.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5-75
QuickCheck 5.10
A hollow tube lies flat on a table.
A ball is shot through the tube.
As the ball emerges from the
other end, which path
does it follow?
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Slide 5-76
QuickCheck 5.10
A hollow tube lies flat on a table.
A ball is shot through the tube.
As the ball emerges from the
other end, which path
does it follow?
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C
Slide 5-77
Tactics: Drawing a Free-body Diagram
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Slide 5-78
Tactics: Drawing a Free-body Diagram
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Slide 5-79
QuickCheck 5.11
An elevator, lifted by a cable, is moving upward and
slowing. Which is the correct free-body diagram?
A.
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B.
C.
D.
E.
Slide 5-80
QuickCheck 5.11
An elevator, lifted by a cable, is moving upward and
slowing. Which is the correct free-body diagram?
A.
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B.
C.
D.
E.
Slide 5-81
QuickCheck 5.12
A ball has been tossed straight up. Which is the correct
free-body diagram just after the ball has left the hand?
Ignore air resistance.
A.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
B.
C.
D.
Slide 5-82
QuickCheck 5.12
A ball has been tossed straight up. Which is the correct
free-body diagram just after the ball has left the hand?
Ignore air resistance.
A.
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B.
C.
D.
No points of
contact.
Gravity is
the only
force.
Slide 5-83
EXAMPLE 5.4 An Elevator Accelerates Upward
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Slide 5-84
EXAMPLE 5.4 An Elevator Accelerates Upward
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Slide 5-85
QuickCheck 5.13
A ball, hanging from the ceiling by a
string, is pulled back and released.
Which is the correct free-body
diagram just after its release?
A.
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B.
C.
D.
E.
Slide 5-86
QuickCheck 5.13
A ball, hanging from the ceiling by a
string, is pulled back and released.
Which is the correct free-body
diagram just after its release?
A.
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B.
C.
D.
E.
Slide 5-87
EXAMPLE 5.6 A Skier Is Pulled up a Hill
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Slide 5-88
EXAMPLE 5.6 A Skier Is Pulled up a Hill
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Slide 5-89
EXAMPLE 5.6 A Skier Is Pulled up a Hill
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Slide 5-90
Chapter 5 Summary Slides
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Slide 5-91
General Principles
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Slide 5-92
General Principles
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Slide 5-93
Important Concepts
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Slide 5-94
Important Concepts
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Slide 5-95
Important Concepts
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Slide 5-96
Fly UP