...

Which series of ionic compounds is decreasing according to their

by user

on
60

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

Which series of ionic compounds is decreasing according to their
Chapter 12 Clickers
Conceptual
Integrated Science
Second Edition
Chemical Bonds
and Mixtures
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
How many unpaired valence electrons are there in
a nitrogen atom?
a)
b)
c)
d)
One.
Two.
Three.
Five.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
N
How many unpaired valence electrons are there in
a nitrogen atom?
a)
b)
c)
d)
One.
Two.
Three.
Five.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
N
How many bonds is nitrogen able to make?
a)
b)
c)
d)
One.
Two.
Three.
Five.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
N
How many bonds is nitrogen able to make?
a)
b)
c)
d)
One.
Two.
Three.
Five.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
N
The neon atom tends NOT to gain any additional
electrons because
a) its nuclear charge is not great enough.
b) that would result in a positive ion.
c) of the repulsions they would experience with
electrons in the same shell.
d) there is no more room available in its outermost
occupied shell.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The neon atom tends NOT to gain any additional
electrons because
a) its nuclear charge is not great enough.
b) that would result in a positive ion.
c) of the repulsions they would experience with
electrons in the same shell.
d) there is no more room available in its outermost
occupied shell.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Magnesium ions carry a 2+ charge, and chloride
ions carry a 1– charge. What is the chemical
formula for the ionic compound magnesium
chloride?
a)
b)
c)
d)
MgCl
Mg2Cl
MgCl2
Mg2Cl2
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Magnesium ions carry a 2+ charge, and chloride
ions carry a 1– charge. What is the chemical
formula for the ionic compound magnesium
chloride?
a)
b)
c)
d)
MgCl
Mg2Cl
MgCl2
Mg2Cl2
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
A hydrogen atom does not form more than one
covalent bond, because it
a)
b)
c)
d)
has only one shell of electrons.
has only one electron to share.
loses its valence electron so readily.
has such a strong electronegativity.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
A hydrogen atom does not form more than one
covalent bond, because it
a)
b)
c)
d)
has only one shell of electrons.
has only one electron to share.
loses its valence electron so readily.
has such a strong electronegativity.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
An atom loses an electron to another atom. Is this
an example of a physical or a chemical change?
a) Physical change involving the formation of negative
ions.
b) Chemical change involving the formation of
negative ions.
c) Physical change involving the formation of positive
ions.
d) Chemical change involving the formation of
positive ions.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
An atom loses an electron to another atom. Is this
an example of a physical or a chemical change?
a) Physical change involving the formation of negative
ions.
b) Chemical change involving the formation of
negative ions.
c) Physical change involving the formation of positive
ions.
d) Chemical change involving the formation of
positive ions.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Classify the following bond as ionic, covalent, or
metallic (Na, atomic number 11; Cl, atomic
number 17)
Na with Cl
a)
b)
c)
d)
Na with Na
metallic, covalent, covalent
ionic, metallic, covalent
ionic, ionic, covalent
covalent, metallic, ionic
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Cl with Cl
Classify the following bond as ionic, covalent, or
metallic (Na, atomic number 11; Cl, atomic
number 17)
Na with Cl
a)
b)
c)
d)
Na with Na
metallic, covalent, covalent
ionic, metallic, covalent
ionic, ionic, covalent
covalent, metallic, ionic
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Cl with Cl
In terms of the periodic table, is there an abrupt or
gradual change between ionic and covalent
bonds?
a) An abrupt change that occurs across the
metalloids.
b) Actually, any element of the periodic table can form
a covalent bond.
c) There is a gradual change: the farther apart, the
more ionic.
d) Whether an element forms one or the other
depends on nuclear charge and not the relative
positions in the periodic table.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
In terms of the periodic table, is there an abrupt or
gradual change between ionic and covalent
bonds?
a) An abrupt change that occurs across the
metalloids.
b) Actually, any element of the periodic table can form
a covalent bond.
c) There is a gradual change: the farther apart, the
more ionic.
d) Whether an element forms one or the other
depends on nuclear charge and not the relative
positions in the periodic table.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which bond is most polar?
a)
b)
c)
d)
H-N
N-C
C-C
O-H
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which bond is most polar?
a)
b)
c)
d)
H-N
N-C
C-C
O-H
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Hydrogen chloride, HCl, is a gas at room
temperature. Would you expect this material to be
very soluble or not very soluble in water?
a) Very soluble in water by because it is polar.
b) Not very soluble in water because it is a gas.
c) Very soluble in water, because it is such a small
molecule.
d) Not very soluble, because it is nonpolar.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Hydrogen chloride, HCl, is a gas at room
temperature. Would you expect this material to be
very soluble or not very soluble in water?
a) Very soluble in water by because it is polar.
b) Not very soluble in water because it is a gas.
c) Very soluble in water, because it is such a small
molecule.
d) Not very soluble, because it is nonpolar.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Atoms of metallic elements can form ionic bonds,
but they are not very good at forming covalent
bonds. Why?
a) These atoms are too large to be able to come in
close contact with other atoms.
b) They have a great tendency to lose electrons.
c) They are on the wrong side of the periodic table.
d) Their valence shells are already filled with
electrons.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Atoms of metallic elements can form ionic bonds,
but they are not very good at forming covalent
bonds. Why?
a) These atoms are too large to be able to come in
close contact with other atoms.
b) They have a great tendency to lose electrons.
c) They are on the wrong side of the periodic table.
d) Their valence shells are already filled with
electrons.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
How many electrons are used to draw the
electron-dot structure for hydrogen peroxide, a
covalent compound with the formula H2O2?
a)
b)
c)
d)
14
8
7
4
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
How many electrons are used to draw the
electron-dot structure for hydrogen peroxide, a
covalent compound with the formula H2O2?
a)
b)
c)
d)
14
8
7
4
H
O
O
H
[There are two electrons per bond]
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The source of an atom's electronegativity is the
a) kinetic energy which electrons orbiting the nucleus
have.
b) repulsive force occurring among electrons within
the same shell.
c) repulsive force occurring between electrons within
neighboring shells.
d) effective nuclear charge.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The source of an atom's electronegativity is the
a) kinetic energy which electrons orbiting the nucleus
have.
b) repulsive force occurring among electrons within
the same shell.
c) repulsive force occurring between electrons within
neighboring shells.
d) effective nuclear charge.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Two molecules have very different physical
properties. Molecule "A" boils at 80°C and freezes
at –30°C. Molecule "B" boils at 35°C and freezes
at –100°C. Which molecule is likely to have the
largest dipole?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Molecule A
Molecule B
Not enough information was given.
Both have similar dipoles.
Molecule A and molecule B are the same, but each
has different properties.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Two molecules have very different physical
properties. Molecule "A" boils at 80°C and freezes
at –30°C. Molecule "B" boils at 35°C and freezes
at –100°C. Which molecule is likely to have the
largest dipole?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Molecule A
Molecule B
Not enough information was given.
Both have similar dipoles.
Molecule A and molecule B are the same, but each
has different properties.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Magnesium chloride, MgCl2, crystals are
composed of
a) a two-dimensional array of [-Mg-Cl-Cl-] units.
b) a multitude of Mg2+ ions and Cl– ions grouped
together in a three-dimensional array with a 1:2
ratio of Mg2+ to Cl–.
c) units of MgCl2 molecules held together by dipole
interactions.
d) groups of Mg2+ ions and Cl2 molecules.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Magnesium chloride, MgCl2, crystals are
composed of
a) a two-dimensional array of [-Mg-Cl-Cl-] units.
b) a multitude of Mg2+ ions and Cl– ions grouped
together in a three-dimensional array with a 1:2
ratio of Mg2+ to Cl–.
c) units of MgCl2 molecules held together by dipole
interactions.
d) groups of Mg2+ ions and Cl2 molecules.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
When nitrogen and fluorine combine to form a
molecule, the most likely chemical formula is
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
N3F
N2F
NF4
NF
NF3
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
When nitrogen and fluorine combine to form a
molecule, the most likely chemical formula is
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
N3F
N2F
NF4
NF
NF3
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
F N F
F
The charges with sodium chloride are all
balanced—for every positive sodium ion, there is
a corresponding negative chloride ion. Because its
charges are balanced, how can sodium chloride
be attracted to water, and vice versa?
a) Dispersion forces come into play.
b) Hydrogen bonding.
c) Sodium chloride dissolves in water because water
provides a medium in which the individual sodium
and chloride ions can disperse.
d) As a water molecule gets close to the sodium
chloride, it can distinguish the various ions.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The charges with sodium chloride are all
balanced—for every positive sodium ion, there is
a corresponding negative chloride ion. Because its
charges are balanced, how can sodium chloride
be attracted to water, and vice versa?
a) Dispersion forces come into play.
b) Hydrogen bonding.
c) Sodium chloride dissolves in water because water
provides a medium in which the individual sodium
and chloride ions can disperse.
d) As a water molecule gets close to the sodium
chloride, it can distinguish the various ions.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Why are ion–dipole attractions stronger than
dipole–dipole attractions?
a) The chemical bond in an ion–dipole molecule is
similar to a covalent bond.
b) Like charge (dipole) does not attract like charge
(another dipole).
c) Dipole areas are subject to changing from positive
to negative regions on the molecule.
d) The magnitude of the electric charge associated
with an ion is much greater.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Why are ion–dipole attractions stronger than
dipole–dipole attractions?
a) The chemical bond in an ion–dipole molecule is
similar to a covalent bond.
b) Like charge (dipole) does not attract like charge
(another dipole).
c) Dipole areas are subject to changing from positive
to negative regions on the molecule.
d) The magnitude of the electric charge associated
with an ion is much greater.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following compounds might best help
to make water and gasoline mix into a single liquid
phase?
a)
b)
c)
d)
The molecule in the middle—because when the salts mix into the
water, it will help separate the water and decrease the attraction for
itself.
The molecule on the far left—because the O-H bond is polar,
and the carbon and hydrogen bonds are nonpolar.
The molecule on the right will form attractions with the polar ends
of the water, allowing the gasoline a chance to mix with the water.
All of these molecules would be equally effective at increasing the
mixing of gasoline and water.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following compounds might best help
to make water and gasoline mix into a single liquid
phase?
a)
b)
c)
d)
The molecule in the middle—because when the salts mix into the
water, it will help separate the water and decrease the attraction for
itself.
The molecule on the far left—because the O-H bond is polar,
and the carbon and hydrogen bonds are nonpolar.
The molecule on the right will form attractions with the polar ends
of the water, allowing the gasoline a chance to mix with the water.
All of these molecules would be equally effective at increasing the
mixing of gasoline and water.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following intermolecular forces best
describes why nonpolar molecules like gasoline
(C8H18) have only limited solubility in water?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Dipole–dipole.
Induced dipole–induced dipole.
Ion-dipole.
Dipole–induced dipole.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following intermolecular forces best
describes why nonpolar molecules like gasoline
(C8H18) have only limited solubility in water?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Dipole–dipole.
Induced dipole–induced dipole.
Ion-dipole.
Dipole–induced dipole.
Explanation:
The strong dipole-dipole attractions among water
molecules keep the water molecules from interacting
significantly with the nonpolar gasoline molecules.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Is the air in your house a homogeneous or a
heterogeneous mixture?
a) Homogeneous, because it is mixed very well.
b) Heterogeneous, because of the dust particles it
contains.
c) Homogeneous, because it is all at the same
temperature.
d) Heterogeneous, because it consists of different
types of molecules.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Is the air in your house a homogeneous or a
heterogeneous mixture?
a) Homogeneous, because it is mixed very well.
b) Heterogeneous, because of the dust particles it
contains.
c) Homogeneous, because it is all at the same
temperature.
d) Heterogeneous, because it consists of different
types of molecules.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Many dry cereals are fortified with iron, which is
added in the form of small iron particles. How
might these particles be separated from the
cereal?
a) Add water, and the iron particles will float to the
top.
b) Blend the cereal to a fine consistency and pass
through a filter.
c) Collect the iron filings with a magnet.
d) Heat the cereal so that the iron particles melt and
thereby coalesce.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Many dry cereals are fortified with iron, which is
added in the form of small iron particles. How
might these particles be separated from the
cereal?
a) Add water, and the iron particles will float to the
top.
b) Blend the cereal to a fine consistency and pass
through a filter.
c) Collect the iron filings with a magnet.
d) Heat the cereal so that the iron particles melt and
thereby coalesce.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Would you expect to find more dissolved oxygen
in cold polar or warm tropical ocean waters?
a) Tropical oceans, because intense tropical storms
mix up the atmospheric oxygen into the ocean
water.
b) Polar oceans, because the colder oxygen would
"sink" and dissolve into the water.
c) Tropical oceans, because the heated oxygen
molecules in the air would collide with and mix into
the water.
d) Polar oceans, because the solubility of oxygen
in water decreases with increasing temperature.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Would you expect to find more dissolved oxygen
in cold polar or warm tropical ocean waters?
a) Tropical oceans, because intense tropical storms
mix up the atmospheric oxygen into the ocean
water.
b) Polar oceans, because the colder oxygen would
"sink" and dissolve into the water.
c) Tropical oceans, because the heated oxygen
molecules in the air would collide with and mix into
the water.
d) Polar oceans, because the solubility of oxygen
in water decreases with increasing
temperature.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Fish don't live very long in water that has just
been boiled and brought back to room
temperature. Suggest why.
a) There is now a higher concentration of dissolved
CO2 in the water.
b) The nutrients in the water have been destroyed.
c) Because some of the water was evaporated while
boiling, the salts in the water are now more
concentrated. This has a negative effect on the
fish.
d) The boiling process removes the air that was
dissolved in the water. Upon cooling, the water
is void of its usual air content; hence, the fish
drown.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Fish don't live very long in water that has just
been boiled and brought back to room
temperature. Suggest why.
a) There is now a higher concentration of dissolved
CO2 in the water.
b) The nutrients in the water have been destroyed.
c) Because some of the water was evaporated while
boiling, the salts in the water are now more
concentrated. This has a negative effect on the
fish.
d) The boiling process removes the air that was
dissolved in the water. Upon cooling, the water
is void of its usual air content; hence, the fish
drown.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
How would you respond in defense of water's
purity if it contained thousands of molecules of
some impurity per glass?
a) Impurities aren't necessarily bad; in fact, they may
be good for you.
b) The water contains water molecules, and each
water molecule is pure.
c) There's no defense. If the water contains
impurities, it should not be drunk.
d) Compared to the billions and billions of water
molecules, a thousand molecules of something
else is practically nothing.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
How would you respond in defense of water's
purity if it contained thousands of molecules of
some impurity per glass?
a) Impurities aren't necessarily bad; in fact, they may
be good for you.
b) The water contains water molecules, and each
water molecule is pure.
c) There's no defense. If the water contains
impurities, it should not be drunk.
d) Compared to the billions and billions of water
molecules, a thousand molecules of something
else is practically nothing.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The boiling point of 1,4-butanediol is 230°C.
Would you expect this compound to be soluble or
insoluble in room-temperature water?
a) Insoluble because there are no polar areas on this
molecule.
b) Insoluble because a high boiling point means that
the substance interacts with itself quite strongly
c) Insoluble because there are polar areas on this
molecule.
d) Soluble because there are polar areas on this
molecule.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
1,4-butanediol
The boiling point of 1,4-butanediol is 230°C.
Would you expect this compound to be soluble or
insoluble in room-temperature water?
a) Insoluble because there are no polar areas on this
molecule.
b) Insoluble because a high boiling point means that
the substance interacts with itself quite strongly
c) Insoluble because there are polar areas on this
molecule.
d) Soluble because there are polar areas on this
molecule.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
1,4-butanediol
What is the molarity of 0.5 liters of a solution with
five moles of sucrose in it?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
0.5 molar
2.5 molar
10 molar
1 molar
5 molar
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
What is the molarity of 0.5 liters of a solution with
five moles of sucrose in it?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
0.5 molar
2.5 molar
10 molar
1 molar
5 molar
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Account for the observation that ethanol, C2H5OH,
mixes readily in water but dimethyl ether,
CH3OCH3, which has the same number and kinds
of atoms, does not.
a) The structure of ethanol is less complex.
b) The ethanol contains a polar O-H bond.
c) The hydrogens of dimethyl ether shield the inner
oxygen from interacting with the water.
d) Dimethyl ether is a gas and gases do not mix in
water.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
(mixes with water)
(does NOT mix with water)
Account for the observation that ethanol, C2H5OH,
mixes readily in water but dimethyl ether,
CH3OCH3, which has the same number and kinds
of atoms, does not.
a) The structure of ethanol is less complex.
b) The ethanol contains a polar O-H bond.
c) The hydrogens of dimethyl ether shield the inner
oxygen from interacting with the water.
d) Dimethyl ether is a gas and gases do not mix in
water.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
(mixes with water)
(does NOT mix with water)
Which of the following substances should be most
soluble in hexane, CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
I2
CH3CH2OH
H2O
HF
NaCl
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following substances should be most
soluble in hexane, CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
I2
CH3CH2OH
H2O
HF
NaCl
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Fly UP