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Step Up To: Psychology

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Step Up To: Psychology
Step Up To: Psychology
by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
From Myers,
Psychology 8e
Worth Publishers
Chapter 9: Memory
Fetch!
Retain
Process
Can’t Remember?
Real or Imagined?
Process
500
400
300
200
100
retain
500
400
300
200
100
Fetch!
500
400
300
200
100
Can’t remember?
500
400
300
200
100
Real or imagined?
500
400
300
200
100
1. The process of getting information
into memory is called:
•
•
•
•
A) priming.
B) chunking.
C) encoding.
D) storage.
2. Encoding that occurs with no
effort or a minimal level of
conscious attention is known as:
•
•
•
•
A) repression.
B) long-term potentiation.
C) automatic processing.
D) state-dependent memory.
3. The process by which information is
encoded by its meaning is called:
•
•
•
•
A) long-term potentiation.
B) semantic encoding.
C) priming.
D) automatic processing.
4. The organization of
information into meaningful units
is called:
•
•
•
•
A) automatic processing.
B) chunking.
C) the spacing effect.
D) the method of loci.
5. Timmy learns the sentence,
“George eats old gray rats and
paints houses yellow” to help him
remember how to spell
“geography.” He is using:
•
•
•
•
A) a mnemonic device.
B) the “peg-word” system.
C) the spacing effect.
D) the method of loci.
6. Our immediate short-term memory for
new material is limited to roughly ___ bits
of information.
•
•
•
•
A) 3
B) 7
C) 12
D) 20
7. Conscious memory of factual
information is called ___
memory.
•
•
•
•
A) state-dependent
B) flashbulb
C) explicit
D) implicit
8. The increased efficiency of neural
circuitry that contributes to memory
storage is known as:
•
•
•
•
A) chunking.
B) the next-in-line effect.
C) automatic processing.
D) long-term potentiation.
9. Iconic memory refers to:
• A) the encoded meanings of words
and events in short-term memory.
• B) photographic, or picture-image,
memory that lasts for only about a
second.
• C) the recall of words by their
sounds.
• D) the visually encoded images in
long-term memory.
10. Unlike implicit memories,
explicit memories are processed by
the:
•
•
•
•
A) hippocampus.
B) cerebellum.
C) hypothalamus.
D) motor cortex.
11. The association of sadness with
negative life events contributes to:
•
•
•
•
A) the self-reference effect.
B) retroactive interference.
C) repression.
D) mood-congruent memory.
12. The smell of freshly baked
bread awakened in Mr. Puckett
vivid memories of is early
childhood. The aroma apparently
acted as a powerful:
•
•
•
•
A) sensory memory.
B) reconstructive signal.
C) retrieval cue.
D) implicit memory.
13. An eyewitness to a grocery store
robbery is asked to identify the
suspects in a police lineup. Which test
of memory is being utilized?
•
•
•
•
A) recognition.
B) recall.
C) relearning.
D) reconstruction.
14. Retrieval cues are most likely
to facilitate a process known as:
•
•
•
•
A) automatic processing.
B) priming.
C) chunking.
D) relearning.
15. Fill-in-the-blank test questions
measure ___; matching concepts with
their definitions measures ___.
•
•
•
•
A) recognition; relearning.
B) recall; recognition.
C) recall; relearning.
D) relearning; recall.
16. Retroactive interference refers
to the:
• A) decay of physical memory traces.
• B) disruptive effect of previously
learned material on the recall of new
information.
• C) disruptive effect of new learning on
the recall of previously learned
material.
• D) blocking of painful memories
from conscious awareness.
17. An inability to recall the location of
the number 0 on your calculator is most
likely due to:
•
•
•
•
A) source amnesia.
B) proactive interference.
C) memory decay.
D) encoding failure.
18. When Jake applied for a driver’s
license, he was embarrassed by a
momentary inability to remember his
address. Jake’s memory difficulty most
likely resulted from a(n) _______.
•
•
•
•
A) rehearsal
B) storage
C) encoding
D) retrieval
19. Motivated forgetting provides an
example of forgetting caused by a
failure in:
•
•
•
•
A) automatic processing.
B) retrieval.
C) storage.
D) encoding.
20. We often alter our memories as we
withdraw them from storage. This best
illustrates:
•
•
•
•
A) memory construction.
B) the self-reference effect.
C) automatic processing.
D) priming.
21. Memories of stressful and
unpleasant life experiences are not
likely to be:
•
•
•
•
A) encoded.
B) repressed.
C) stored.
D) retrieved.
22. Adult incest survivors who have trouble
remembering incidences of childhood sexual
abuse have often been led to believe that
their memory difficulties are due to:
•
•
•
•
A) memory storage failure.
B) the misinformation effect.
C) memory encoding failure.
D) repression.
23. Incorporating misleading information
into one’s memory of an event can result
in the witness making mistakes on details
when later asked to recall. This is called:
•
•
•
•
A) misinformation effect.
B) long-term potentiation.
C) flashbulb memory.
D) other-influenced confabulation.
24. Memory experts who express skepticism
regarding reports of repressed and recovered
memories emphasize that:
• A) there is very little people can do to relieve
the distress resulting from traumatic
memories.
• B) most extremely traumatic life experiences
are never encoded into long-term memory.
• C) therapeutic techniques such as guided
imagery and hypnosis can easily encourage
the construction of false memories.
• D) people rarely recall memories of longforgotten unpleasant events.
25. After repeatedly hearing false, detailed
accusations that he had sexually abused his
daughter, Mr. Busker began to mistakenly
recollect that such events had actually
occurred. This best illustrates the dangers of:
•
•
•
•
A) source amnesia.
B) proactive interference.
C) implicit memory.
D) mood-congruent memory.
Stop here, or continue as a review
1. The process of getting information
into memory is called:
•
•
•
•
A) priming.
B) chunking.
C) encoding.
D) storage.
351
2. Encoding that occurs with no
effort or a minimal level of
conscious attention is known as:
•
•
•
•
A) repression.
B) long-term potentiation.
C) automatic processing.
D) state-dependent memory.
353
3. The process by which information is
encoded by its meaning is called:
•
•
•
•
A) long-term potentiation.
B) semantic encoding.
C) priming.
D) automatic processing.
356
4. The organization of
information into meaningful units
is called:
•
•
•
•
A) automatic processing.
B) chunking.
C) the spacing effect.
D) the method of loci.
359
5. Timmy learns the sentence,
“George eats old gray rats and
paints houses yellow” to help him
remember how to spell
“geography.” He is using:
•
•
•
•
A) a mnemonic device.
B) the “peg-word” system.
C) the spacing effect.
D) the method of loci.
358
6. Our immediate short-term memory for
new material is limited to roughly ___ bits
of information.
•
•
•
•
A) 3
B) 7
C) 12
D) 20
362
7. Conscious memory of factual
information is called ___
memory.
•
•
•
•
A) state-dependent
B) flashbulb
C) explicit
D) implicit
367
8. The increased efficiency of neural
circuitry that contributes to memory
storage is known as:
•
•
•
•
A) chunking.
B) the next-in-line effect.
C) automatic processing.
D) long-term potentiation.
365
9. Iconic memory refers to:
• A) the encoded meanings of words
and events in short-term memory.
• B) photographic, or picture-image,
memory that lasts for only about a
second.
• C) the recall of words by their
sounds.
• D) the visually encoded images in
long-term memory.
362
10. Unlike implicit memories,
explicit memories are processed by
the:
•
•
•
•
A) hippocampus.
B) cerebellum.
C) hypothalamus.
D) motor cortex.
368
11. The association of sadness with
negative life events contributes to:
•
•
•
•
A) the self-reference effect.
B) retroactive interference.
C) repression.
D) mood-congruent memory.
374
12. The smell of freshly baked
bread awakened in Mr. Puckett
vivid memories of is early
childhood. The aroma apparently
acted as a powerful:
•
•
•
•
A) sensory memory.
B) reconstructive signal.
C) retrieval cue.
D) implicit memory.
371
13. An eyewitness to a grocery store
robbery is asked to identify the
suspects in a police lineup. Which test
of memory is being utilized?
•
•
•
•
A) recognition.
B) recall.
C) relearning.
D) reconstruction.
370
14. Retrieval cues are most likely
to facilitate a process known as:
•
•
•
•
A) automatic processing.
B) priming.
C) chunking.
D) relearning.
372
15. Fill-in-the-blank test questions
measure ___; matching concepts with
their definitions measures ___.
•
•
•
•
A) recognition; relearning.
B) recall; recognition.
C) recall; relearning.
D) relearning; recall.
370
16. Retroactive interference refers
to the:
• A) decay of physical memory traces.
• B) disruptive effect of previously
learned material on the recall of new
information.
• C) disruptive effect of new learning on
the recall of previously learned
material.
• D) blocking of painful memories from
conscious awareness.
379
17. An inability to recall the location of
the number 0 on your calculator is most
likely due to:
•
•
•
•
A) source amnesia.
B) proactive interference.
C) memory decay.
D) encoding failure.
376
18. When Jake applied for a driver’s
license, he was embarrassed by a
momentary inability to remember his
address. Jake’s memory difficulty most
likely resulted from a(n) _______.
•
•
•
•
A) rehearsal
B) storage
C) encoding
D) retrieval
378
19. Motivated forgetting provides an
example of forgetting caused by a
failure in:
•
•
•
•
A) automatic processing.
B) retrieval.
C) storage.
D) encoding.
380
20. We often alter our memories as we
withdraw them from storage. This best
illustrates:
•
•
•
•
A) memory construction.
B) the self-reference effect.
C) automatic processing.
D) priming.
382
21. Memories of stressful and
unpleasant life experiences are not
likely to be:
•
•
•
•
A) encoded.
B) repressed.
C) stored.
D) retrieved.
388
22. Adult incest survivors who have trouble
remembering incidences of childhood sexual
abuse have often been led to believe that
their memory difficulties are due to:
•
•
•
•
A) memory storage failure.
B) the misinformation effect.
C) memory encoding failure.
D) repression.
387
23. Children in one study were periodically
asked whether they remembered going to the
circus. They later described in great detail
their memory of going to the circus, although
they were never there. This illustrates:
•
•
•
•
A) misinformation effect:
B) long-term potentiation.
C) flashbulb memory.
D) other-influenced confabulation.
383
24. Memory experts who express skepticism
regarding reports of repressed and recovered
memories emphasize that:
• A) there is very little people can do to relieve
the distress resulting from traumatic
memories.
• B) most extremely traumatic life experiences
are never encoded into long-term memory.
• C) therapeutic techniques such as guided
imagery and hypnosis can easily encourage
the construction of false memories.
• D) people rarely recall memories of longforgotten unpleasant events.
388
25. After repeatedly hearing false, detailed
accusations that he had sexually abused his
daughter, Mr. Busker began to mistakenly
recollect that such events had actually
occurred. This best illustrates the dangers of:
•
•
•
•
A) source amnesia.
B) proactive interference.
C) implicit memory.
D) mood-congruent memory.
384
Acknowledgements
• Step Up Created by:
– John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
• Based on Psychology,
Eighth Edition by
• David Myers
• Published by
• Worth Publishers, 2006
Answers
1.
C
9.
B
17.
D
2.
C
10.
A
18.
D
3.
B
11.
D
19.
B
4.
B
12.
C
20.
A
5.
A
13.
A
21.
B
6.
B
14.
B
22.
D
7.
C
15.
B
23.
A
8.
D
16.
C
24.
C
25.
A
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