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Chapter 17—Adverb Clauses

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Chapter 17—Adverb Clauses
Chapter 17
Adverbial Clauses
The Williams Sisters
1
Wimbledon, tennis capital of the world, may never see
anything like it again: the Williams sisters, Venus and Serena,
fighting it out in Centre Court for the women’s singles
championship in July 2008. When they had met here before in
2002 and 2003, Serena beat her older sister both times, but not
that day as Venus showed once again that Wimbledon was her
favorite court. Venus returned to defend her championship,
glowing with a confidence that she might not have elsewhere.
When she plays on grass, at 6’1” tall, she covers a lot of air and
space at the net. After she won, there were none of Venus’
usual leaps in the air because she had beaten her sister. But
the joy was there since it was clearly Venus’ day.
2
Use an adverb clause to show time
relationships.
when = at that time
They had met here before in 2002 and 2003
when Serena beat her older sister both times.
When did Serena beat
her older sister?
In 2002 and 2003.
3
Use an adverb clause to show time
relationships.
as = during that time
When they had met here before in 2002 and 2003,
Serena beat her older sister both times, but not today
as Venus showed once again that Wimbledon was her
favorite court.
When?
Today, during the tennis
match.
4
Use an adverb clause to show time
relationships.
after = to introduce the action that
happened first
1
2
After she won, there were none of Venus’
usual leaps in the air.
5
Practice 1 -
Look at the time relationships in each pair of
sentences. Combine the sentences into one using the words
in parentheses.
1. The Williams sisters had played each other many times
before. They met in the finals at Wimbledon in 2008. (when)
2. Venus started to feel more confident. She started to play
better. (as)
3. Serena started to get upset. She started to lose. (when)
4. Venus won. She was excited but kind to her sister. (after)
5. They played the final singles match in the morning. The
Williams sisters won the doubles final in the afternoon. (after)
6
Use an adverb clause to show cause and
effect.
because
=
since
give a reason, or express
a known cause
Because she is over 6’1”, she can cover a lot
of ground very quickly.
After she won, there were none of Venus
usual leaps in the air since she had beaten
her sister.
7
Practice 2 - Look at the cause and effect relationships in
each pair of sentences. Then combine them into one sentence
using either because or since.
1. Two sisters were competing against each other for the
singles championship. The attention of the sports world
was focused on Wimbledon in July 2008.
2. Serena beat Venus in 2002 and 2003. Venus fought
even harder in 2008.
3. Venus was more subdued in victory that usual. Venus
had beaten her sister.
4. Still, Venus was joyful. It had clearly been Venus’ day
all the way.
8
Venus and Serena Williams grew up in Compton, California
in a poor neighborhood. Even though the tennis courts in the
parks near their home were in shabby condition, their father
took them out to practice every day. If the tennis courts had
any nets at all, they were made of steel – like a chain-link
fence. Even though he was still teaching himself about tennis
from books and videos, Mr. Williams began hitting balls to his
daughters on the city tennis courts. Whether or not it seemed
possible to anyone else, Richard Williams taught his girls that
they would become world champions. And even if his attitude
struck some people as too cocky, it turned out that he was
right! Both of his daughters are world-class tennis champions
today.
9
Use even though when the results are
unexpected.
because = expected results
Because the tennis courts in the parks were in
shabby condition, most people didn’t play on them.
even though = unexpected results
Even though the tennis courts in the parks near
their home were in shabby condition, their father
Richard took them out to practice every day.
10
Use even though when the results are
unexpected.
Were the courts in good condition?
Is it normal to play on courts that have
holes in the ground or don’t have nets?
NO
NO
YES
Did
thethough
Williamsthe
sister
practice
Even
tennis
courtson
in the
the parks near
courts anyway?
their home were in shabby condition, their father
Richard
took them
out toso
practice
everythough.
day even
Unexpected
result,
use even
before they started grammar school.
11
Practice 3
Complete the sentences with even though or
because. One sentence has two answers.
1. _____________
Even though the family grew up poor, they still
dreamed of becoming world famous tennis players.
Because
2. ____________
Even though he didn’t know much about the sport ,their
father started reading books about tennis.
3. He made the girls practice every day ___________
even though
they were very young.
4. Mr. Williams’ confidence in his daughters was justified
______________
they both became world champions.
because
5. ____________
Even though many people did not believe it could
happen, today the Williams sisters are world champions! 12
Use adverb clauses to express conditions.
Whether or not = neither of two conditions
matters
Whether or not it seemed possible to anyone else,
Richard Williams taught his girls that they would
become world champions.
Some people thought it was possible.
Neither opinion mattered to Richard and
Some people thought it was not possible.
his daughters.
13
Use adverb clauses to express conditions.
even if = a particular condition doesn’t matter
And even if his attitude struck some people
as too cocky, it turned out that he was right!
Some people thought his attitude was too
cocky, but it didn’t matter because he was right
in the end.
14
Practice 4
Which sentence has the same meaning (a. or b.)?
1. Whether or not they had to play against each other,
both girls were going to try their hardest to win at
Wimbledon.
a. They would only try hard if they played against
each other.
b. They would try hard in every game.
15
Practice 4
Which sentence has the same meaning (a. or b.)?
2. Even if the tennis courts are in bad shape,
we’ll play our match.
a. We don’t care if the courts are bad. We’ll play
anyway.
b. We’re not going to play if the courts are bad.
16
Practice 4
Which sentence has the same meaning (a. or b.)?
3. Whether or not it rains, the tennis at
Wimbledon goes on.
a. If it rains, they’ll play, and if it doesn’t rain, they’ll
play.
b. If it doesn’t rain, they’ll play.
17
CREDITS
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education and
its licensors. All rights reserved.
Images used under license from:
Shutterstock, Inc.
18
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