Biodiversity and Availability of Medicines

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Biodiversity and Availability of Medicines
Biodiversity and Availability of Medicines
Isma’eel Umar Yunus. BPharm., RPh.
African League Of Young Masters (ALYM) Weekly meeting.
16th March, 2013.
The meaning of Biodiversity.
The scope of Biodiversity.
The benefits of Biodiversity.
Biodiversity as the main source of medicines.
Threats to Biodiversity.
Methods to conserve Biodiversity.
 Biodiversity or in other words Biological diversity
is the scientific term used for the variety of life on
 This includes millions of plants, animals and
microorganisms, the genes they contain and the
ecosystem of which they are part of.
 Biodiversity is everywhere
 It occurs both on land and in water from high altitudes
to deep ocean trenches and it includes all organisms,
from microscopic bacteria to more complex plants and
 Biodiversity remains difficult to measure precisely.
 According to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment,
the total number of species on earth ranges from 5 to 30
million and only 1.7 to 2 million species have been
formally identified.
Consumptive Values:
Batter crop varieties
Industrial Material
Non-Consumptive Values:
Education and Research
Traditional value
Plants, animals and microorganisms are the major sources of
medicines worldwide.
A World Health Organization (WHO) survey revealed 70 to
80% of the world population uses non conventional medicines
(mainly herbal sources) for primary healthcare.
Most of the non conventional drugs are used by less
developed countries.
Despite great advances in rational drug design in which
medicines are synthesized based on scientific knowledge of
their target, most prescribed medicines used in Industrialized
countries are still derived from or patterned after natural
compounds from plants, animals and microorganisms.
Some compounds from plants that has been
particularly useful for human medicine include:
1. Paclitaxel from Pacific Yew tree (Taxus brevifolia)
used in the treatment of metastatic breast and ovarian
2. Quinine from Cinchona tree (Cinchona ledgeriana,
Cinchona officinalis) used in the treatment of malaria,
other antimalarials such as chloroquine and
mefloquine were synthesized through the knowledge
of its chemical structure.
3. Artemisinin from Artemisia annua considered the
most effective antimalarial in use today.
4. Morphine from the Opium poppy (Papaver
somniferum) used as a pain reliever in diverse clinical
5. Aspirin from Willow tree (Salix alba vulgaris),
used as a pain reliever and in preventing
cardiovascular (Heart and Blood vessels) diseases.
6. Coumadin ,an anticoagulant from spoiled sweet
clover (Melitus species), used in clearing blood cloth
in a number of medical conditions.
7. Vincristine from Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) which
has revolutionized the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma,
turning a disease that was once uniformly fatal into one that
can now be totally cured in many patients and vincristine
which has done the same for acute leukaemia.
8. Digoxin from foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), used in the
management of heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias
(abnormal heart rhythm)
1. Captopril and its analogues from the knowledge of
the effect of Pit viper (Brothrops jararaca). Used in
the treatment of hypertension and heart failure.
2. Prostaglandin E2 (Dinoprostone), is of importance in
induction of labour and the treatment of gastric ulcersdiscovered in the two species of gastric brooding frogs found
only in the rainforests of Queensland.
3. Zidovudine (Azidothymidine) used in the treatment of
HIV/AIDS patterned after compounds made by the marine
sponge Cryptotethya crypta. It was the first breakthrough in
the management of HIV/AIDS.
Microorganisms has been the source of almost all
antibiotics currently in use. This may include among
lots of others:
1. Penicillins (E.g. Penicillin G, Ampicillin,
Amoxicillin) from Penicillum nonatum
2. Cephalosporins (E.g. Cephtriaxone, Cefotaxim,
Cephalexin) from Cephalosporium acremonium.
3. Streptomycin from soil samples of the actinobacterium
Streptomyces griseus was the first remedy for
4.Tetracycline from fungus-like, soil dwelling bacterium called
Streptomyces aureofaciens.
 Other non antibiotic drugs from microorganisms include:
1. Cholesterol lowering Statins (E.g. Simvastatin), used in
preventing heart diseases.
2. Anticancer drugs like Adriamycin used in the treatment of
leukemia and multiple myeloma (A form of bone marrow
3. Ciclosporin from fungus Tolypocladium inflatum found in
samples of soil used in preventing organ rejection following
organ transplantation.
Bio-prospecting in the context of Pharmaceutical drugs
refers to the extraction and screening of chemical
compounds from natural sources to develop useful
leads for potentially new drugs.
In its early stage, prospecting largely centered on plants
from the ecosystem forest but in recent years various
forms of biodiversity like insects, algae, and
Nearly half of all cancer drugs approved by the USA
Food and Drug Administration between 1940s and
2010 were developed from natural products or
derivatives of natural products.
 All the medicinal benefits of biodiversity highlighted earlier could
be lost if threats to biodiversity are not being checked.
 Identified threats to biodiversity includes
Over exploitation ( over hunting and over harvesting)
Habitat loss/Degradation/Fragmentation
Invasion of non native species
Climate Change
Increase in population
Global Status of ecosystem services evaluated in the Millennium
ecosystem Assessment (2005) showed the findings below
An upwards arrow indicates that the condition of the service globally
has been enhanced and a downwards arrow that it has been degraded
Stop over harvesting
 Sustainable yield.
 Hunting and fishing laws.
Protect habitat
 Refuges, Parks, Preserves.
Endangered species Act
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Ecosystems and human well-being :
wetlands and water synthesis : a report of the Millennium Ecosystem
Powledge, Fred. "The Millennium Assessment“. Bioscience (2006)56 (11):
Post-2010 Strategic Plan of the Convention on Biological Diversity Tenth
meeting of the Conference of the Parties, 18-29 October, 2010 Nagoya,
Turner, W. R., Brandon, K., et al. Global conservation of Biodiversity and
ecosystem services. (2007) Bioscience 57, 868-873.
Chivian, E. & Bernstein, A. Sustaining Life: How Human Health Depends
on Biodiversity.(2008) New York, NY:
Oxford University Press.
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