...

Throat, Thorax, and Visceral Conditions

by user

on
24

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

Throat, Thorax, and Visceral Conditions
Throat, Thorax, and Visceral
Conditions
Chapter 10
Pharynx, Larynx, and Esophagus
• Pharynx- Connects the nasal cavity and mouth
to the larynx and esophagus. (Throat)
• Larynx- Contains the vocal cords.
• Esophagus- Carries liquids and foods from the
throat to the stomach.
Trachea
• Extends from the inferior larynx through the neck
to the midthorax. Then divides into left and right
bronchial tubes.
• Formed by c-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage.
• Opens to allow food to pass through, and
constricts to expel mucus with coughing.
Blood Vessels
• Common carotid arteries
• Left and right subclavian arteries
Thorax
• Sternum
– Manubrium: articulates 1st and 2nd ribs
– Body: articulates 2nd through 7th ribs
– Xiphoid
• Ribs:
– 1-7 connect costal cartilage to bone
– 8-10 connect to costal cartilage of superior ribs
– 11-12 known as floating ribs as they don’t attach anteriorly to
any surface
• Costal Cartilage
• Thoracic Vertebrae
Bronchial Tree and Lungs
• Bronchial tubes extend downward from the
trachea
• Alveoli-Exchange oxygen between the lungs and
the capillaries
Heart
• 4 chambers
• Right side pumps blood to the lungs
• Left side receives oxygenated blood from lungs
and pumps it into the systemic circulation.
• Atria-simultaneously contract pushing blood into• Ventricles- contract simultaneously pushing
blood into lungs and systemic circulatory circuit.
Heart continued…
• Atrioventricular valves: prevent backflow of blood
from the ventricles to the atria.
• Aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves prevent
backflow of blood from the aorta and pulmonary
artery into the ventricles.
Muscles of the Thorax
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Pectoralis Minor: Scapula forward and downward
Serratus Anterior: Protraction and rotation of scapula
Subclavius: Stabilizes shoulder girdle
Levator Scapulae: Lateral flexion of neck
Trapezius: Elevates, retracts, and rotates the scapula
Rhomboids: Retracts, and rotates scapula
External and Internal Intercostals: Elevate and depress
rib cage
• Diaphragm: Inspiration
Pelvic Girdle and Abdominal Cavity
•
•
•
•
Sacrum
Ilium
Ischium
Pubis
Visceral Organs
•
•
•
•
•
•
Stomach: Digestion of food
Liver:
Gallbladder: Stores bile on way to small intestine
Spleen:
Kidneys: Cleanse and filter the blood
Ureters: Connect kidneys to the urinary bladder
Throat Injuries
• Lacerations
• Contusions
• Fractures
Thoracic Injuries
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Stitch in the side
Breast contusions
Runners nipples
Gynecomastia
Pectoralis muscle strain
Costochondral
Sternal and Rib fractures
Internal Injuries
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Hyperventilation
Pulmonary Contusion
Pneumothorax
Hemothorax
Tension Pneumothorax
Traumatic Asphyxia
Heart Injuries
• Sudden Death in
Athletes
• Athletic Heart Syndrome
Abdominal Wall Conditions
•
•
•
•
Skin wounds and contusions
Muscle strains
Solar plexus contusion
Hernias
Intra-abdominal Injuries
•
•
•
•
•
Splenic rupture
Liver Contusion and Rupture
Appendicitis
Kidney Injuries
Bladder Injuries
Fly UP