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RIO 1992

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RIO 1992
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
RIO TO RIO+20
A Presentation by
Dr. Rajneesh Dube, Joint Secretary
Ministry of Environment & Forests
Government of India
28 September 2011, Jaipur
1
RIO 1992
•
•
•
•
Environment & Development (UNCED)
Rio Principles (27)
Agenda 21: Global Partnership for SD
UNFCCC and CBD: Opened up for
signatures
• UNCCD was born
2
RIO PRINCIPLES
Non-negotiable fundamentals of approach to SD
• Pr.-1: Human beings as central to SD
• Pr.-3: Right to Development
• Pr.-4: Environment protection integral part of the Dev.
• Pr.-5: Poverty eradication – indispensable
• Pr.-7 Common but differentiated responsibilities
• Pr.-10: Access to information and judicial remedy
• Pr.-11 Env. legislations and standards: as nationally
appropriate
• Pr.-15: Precautionary approach
• Pr.20-23: Social equity
3
COMMISSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
• Established in 1994: Functional commission of
ECOSOC
• Bridge between Env. & Dev. Agendas
• Institutional expression to SD as an umbrella concept
to guide the work of global institutions
• Open Space for policy dialogue and best practices
• Political, intellectual and operational presence: Multistakeholder approach
CSD has turned into a body run by the Env. Ministries.
4
Multi-lateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs)
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>500 MEAs
India is a party to 94 MEAs
Nature Conservation: CBD/CITES/UNFF
Chemical & waste: Basel/Stockholm
Atmospheric emissions:
UNFCCC/Montreal Pr.
• Land: UNCCD
5
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AGREEMENTS
• WTO: NAMA/TRIPS
• World Intellectual Property Organization
• ILO Conventions: Forced labour/equal
remuneration
• Human Rights Conventions
6
Human Development Index
trends from 1980 to 2010.
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
HDI
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
OECD
1980
1990
Non-OECD
2000
2010
Arab
States
East Asia
and
Pacific
Europe
and
Central
Asia
Latin
America
and the
Caribbean
South
Asia
SubSaharan
Africa
7
Energy consumption per dollar of
GDP at constant 2005 prices
Energy consumption per capita and
per unit of GDP for select countries
0.35
Russia
0.30
China
0.25
Indonesia
0.20
Canada
Korea, Rep
India
0.15
Brazil
0.10
France
Spa
in Japan
Germany
ly
Ita
UK Sw itzerland
Australia
Sw eden
United States
6000
8000
0.05
0.00
0
2000
4000
10000
Energy consumption p.c. in 2008 (kgoe)
8
ISSUES IN SUSTAINABILITY
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Environment and sustainable development
Sectoral approach and systematic approach
Vertical and horizontal integration
Access versus greening
Question of technology and finance.
Transitional Costs
9
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
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UN Millennium Declaration 2000
Three areas: human capital/infrastructure/rights
8 goals + sub-goals
India’s progress:
–
–
–
–
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger – moderate/slow
Achieve universal primary education – on track
Reduce child mortality rate/MMR – moderate/slow
Sustainable access to safe drinking water – on track
10
Monterrey Consensus on Financing for Development
• Agreed to at the gathering of heads of State and Government
in Monterrey, Mexico, 2002
• Mobilizing domestic financial resources for development
• Private international capital flows, foreign direct investment
• Promoting multilateral trading system and trade liberalization
• Developed countries encouraged to target 0.7 percent of GNP
as ODA to developing countries
• Sustainable debt financing
• Enhancing coherence and consistency of international
monetary, financial and trading systems in support of
development
11
ECONOMIC & SOCIAL LEGISLATIONS IN INDIA
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Foreign Trade (Development & Regulation) Act, 1992
The Competition Act, 2002
Fiscal Responsibilities and Budget (Management) Act, 2003
Right to Information Act, 2005
NREGA, 2005
MSME Development Act, 2006
Forest Rights Act, 2006
Right to Education Act, 2009
12
Legislative Framework
The present legislative framework is broadly contained in:
• Environment
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The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974;
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977
The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991
The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010
• Forests, Wildlife and Biodiversity
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•
•
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The Indian Forest Act, 1927;
The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980;
The Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972
The Biological-diversity Act, 2002.
13
ROLE OF JUDICIARY
• Interpretation of right to life under Article 21
• Oleum Gas Leak Case, 1987: Pr. of absolute
liability
• Vellore Citizen’s Welfare Forum Case, 1996:
principles of SD
• Enviro Legal Action Case, 1996: principles of SD
• Godavarman Case, 1995: NPV and Forest Cons.
Principles.
• MV Naidu Case, 1999: Environmental Courts.
14
POLICY FRAMEWORK: ENVIRONMENT
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Auto Fuel Policy, 2002
National Water Policy, 2002
National Environment Policy, 2006
National Urban Transport Policy, 2006
Integrated Energy Policy, 2008
National Disaster Management Policy, 2009
15
POLICY FRAMEWORK: SOCIAL & ECONOMIC
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National Housing and Habitat Policy, 1998
National Agriculture Policy, 2002
National Electricity Policy, 2005
National Relief & Rehabilitation Policy, 2007
National Minerals Policy, 2008
National Urban Sanitation Policy, 2008
16
KEY PROGRAMMES: SD
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District Primary Education Programme, 1994
National Social Assistance Programme, 1995
Targeted Public Distribution System, 1997
National Afforestation Programme, 2002
Mahatma Gandhi NREGS, 2004
JNNURM, 2005
National Rural Health Mission, 2005
Integrated Water Shed Mgmt. Programme, 2009
National Ganga River Basin Authority, 2009
17
Status of implementation of CBD
Policy frameworks, legislation and action plans
• Biological Diversity Act, 2002
– National Biodiversity Authority (NBA),
– State Biodiversity Boards (SBB)
– Biodiversity Management Committees (BMC)
• National Biodiversity Action Plan (NBAP) 2008
• Adoption of Nagoya Protocol on ABS
• Hosting CoP 11 to CBD in October 2012
18
Status of implementation of UNFCCC
• NAPCC- eight missions
• National Communication to the UNFCCC- First
submitted and the second in final stage of
submission
• India’s voluntary declaration to reduce emissions
intensity of its GDP by 20-25 percent of our 2005
levels by 2025
• Integration of low carbon growth and sustainable
development in the planning process (XII FYP)
• NCDMA in India grants Host Country Approvals to
CDM projects
19
Economic
Sustainable
development
Social
Population & health
•MoH&FW
•MoHA
o DoHA
Education
•MoHRD
o DoE
•DoW&CD
Employment
• MoSCI&A&RI
•MoRD
•MoL
Women & children
•MoHRD
• DoW&CD
Protection of
vulnerable sections
•MoLJ
• MoTA
• MoSJ&E
Environment
Overall
environment
• MoEF
Energy & power
•MNRE
• MoP
Water
• MoWR
Land
•MoRD
• DoLR
Awareness
• MoHRD
Rural development
•MoSCI &A &RI
•MoCAFPD
•MoRD
o DoRD
o DoLR
o DoDWS
•MoA
•MoPR
Urban development
•MoUD
•MoH&PA
•MoSCI& A&RI
Industry
•MoC&I
o DoC
o DoIP&P
•MoSCI&A&RI
Science &
technology
• MoS&T
•MoES
• MoC&IT
Social security
•MoH&FW
•MoRD
20
Institutions for Sustainable Development
• Panchayats/Municipalities
• CPCB/SPCBs regime
• MoEF – SEIAAs/SCZMAs
• Specialized authorities u/s 3(3) of E(P) Act
• NBA/SBB/BMC
• Other authorities: NTCA/NDMA/NRAA
• Councils and Commissions
• Research institutions
Issues: Coordination and capacity building
21
CHALLENGES
• Pressures on Environment Due to Economic Growth,
Infrastructure Development, Urbanization and
Changing Life Styles
• Promoting Intersectorality and Integrating Safety,
Health and Environment
• Institutional Reforms to Keep Pace with Legislation
• Enhancing Institutional Capacities and Strengthening
Implementation
• Mainstreaming Science Based Approach
• Appropriate Technological Applications
• Balancing Environment & Development
22
Status of Pollution
 Trends in pollution
• Levels of SOx and lead are decreasing- all cities complying
• PM10 exceeding in 94 cities and NOx an emerging pollutant
in 10 cities
• Number of polluted river stretches increasing : 150
• Waste generation is increasing
 Status of Compliance
• 17 categories of HPIs (2609 units): compliance 70%;
• Grossly Polluted Industries (1162 units): compliance 68%
• Sewage Class I & II Cities: Generation: 38254 mld,
Treatment: 11787 (31%)
23
INTER-SECTORALITY IN ENVIRONMENT
24
CORE ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE
INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK:
•
MoEF and CPCB at Federal Level
•
SPCBs at State Level
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Municipal bodies at City level
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Setting of Standards by MoEF on the Recommendations of CPCB
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Enforcement of Standards through Consent Mechanism by SPCBs/PCCs
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Environmental Clearance by Federal and State EIA Authorities
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EC compliance Monitoring by Regional Offices of MoEF & CPCB
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Coordination among SPCBs by CPCB
25
ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE ISSUES
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Hiatus between Environmental Regulations and Compliance
Use of Economic Instruments
Inspection Protocols
Database Management (Use of ICT/GIS/GPS)
Environmental decision-making
Centre-State Relationship (CPCB-SPCBs-Local Bodies)
Capacity Building/Institutional Building
26
New Initiatives by MoEF
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Third party audit
On-line emission monitoring
Industrial self-monitoring, reporting
and verification (MRV)
National Green Tribunal
Administrative Adjudication Proposed
Proposed NEAMA
27
WHY NGT ?
• Increasing environmental litigation
• Multidisciplinary nature of environmental
cases
• No existing court with dedicated jurisdiction
• Rigidity of existing court procedures
• Existing gaps in judicial remedy
NGT Established on October 18, 2010: Effective
and expeditious disposal of cases.
28
POWERS OF NGT
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Has both original & appellate jurisdiction
To settle disputes related to E&F laws
Powers to award relief and compensation
Appellate body under six enactments
NET Act, 1995 and NEAA Act, 1997
repealed
29
GLOBAL CRISIS
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Energy crisis
Food crisis
Water crisis
Financial crisis
Societal crisis
30
RIO + 20
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2012, Brazil: Head of State Level
Renewed political commitment
Focus on implementation
Two themes:
o Green Economy (GESDPE)
o Institutional Framework (IFSD)
o UNEP Upgrade
o ECOSOC/CSD Reforms
Issues:
o Policy space
o Green protectionism
o Sustainable development goals
o Technology and finance
o Balancing the three pillars
31
THANK YOU
32
Dr. Rajneesh Dube, Joint Secretary
Ministry of Environment & Forests
Government of India
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 011-24363956
33
Fly UP